By Sarah J Bell, on 10 December 2013
This week’s guest blog post comes from Georgie Court of MyKindaCrowd (email@example.com).
Here at MyKindaCrowd, we are currently running an amazing challenge with the great charity WaterAid! The challenge is for young people between the ages of 12- 18 to design an environmentally friendly toilet. The challenge focuses mostly around supporting innovative and different approaches and whilst they might not all be realistic, the challenge’s main purpose is to engage with young people on sanitation in a creative and fun way.
Too often the wild and wacky ideas of those without degrees and qualifications can get overlooked and here at MyKindaCrowd we aim to change this. We look to support the younger generation in interacting with worldwide issues such as sanitation and the environment on a level that is and suitable to all ages and backgrounds.
After receiving many submissions for the MyKindaCrowd toilet challenge, we picked 5 very different designs to join us in showcasing some ideas at the UCLoo closing event on Tuesday the 3rd December. Our 5 students all turned up with designs in hand – ready to discuss and boast about their thoughts and suggestions, to those attending the afternoon event.
Matthew worked very hard on his design that focused mainly around a toilet design suitable for third world country’s, which uses dirty toilet water to feed local crops and fields. Other favourite designs include the Doctor Who themed ‘Turdis’, and the compost based ‘Soilet’.
The event was great for many reasons; firstly the students who attended were encouraged by listening to inspirational speakers, they got the opportunity to speak to professional toilet enthusiasts (we didn’t even realize that was a thing before the event!), they witnessed alternative toilets options come to life in the ‘make-a-thon’ and most importantly, they were given the chance to be loud and proud about their own toilet thoughts.
We felt that it was important for these students to attend the afternoon event because whilst environmental issues are everywhere, we appreciate that sometimes it can be easy with the hussle and bussle of growing – up for young people to forget about the importance for recycling, looking after the planet and generally living a green life. However, MyKindaCrowd want to constantly provide young people with a platform to connect to the world around them by inviting them to events like this and giving them opportunities to speak to those educated in different field’s and on a range of topics.
MyKindaCrowd aim to play a key role in inspiring a generation to think enterprisingly and innovatively with a whole range of issues and the environment is one of them. After all, the world needs a new toilet, and we have a responsibly to support different ideas and introduce new fresh people into the working world. Together we can do this. Young people, great ideas, education, a need for change, people that want to make the change. This can happen.
Long live the global toilet revolution and all those involved! You heard it here first, MyKindaCrowd and UCLoo, together making the world a cleaner, dryer, more toilet and environmentally friendly place. Watch this space!
By Charlotte A Barrow, on 21 November 2013
Time Out has featured our Festival on their ‘blog. Read on for their view:
“Warning: if you are not a fan of toilet humour, look away now. Still here? Great. We knew you wouldn’t wash your hands of us (strap in – it gets much worse).
This week, UCL becomes the UK’s first loo-niversity as it celebrates World Toilet Day, Tuesday November 19, with a festival of poop culture (slogan: ‘Do you know your shit?’). Partly it’s to highlight the inequality of a world divided into the lavs and the lav-nots, so that the 2.5 billion people without sanitation no longer get a bum deal. But the environmentally concerned organisers say they’d also like us to ‘consider our own “flush and forget” mentality more critically’. Which we guess you’d call wee-cology.
Even better, you won’t have to spend a penny. Free events include a toilet exhibition showcasing radical new commode designs, such as one model where tiger worms dine on your droppings. Kids will be shown different kinds of crap-loving microbes. People can sign up to join a group in UCL’s ‘Makespace’ lab, where they’ll be given loads of design kit and six hours to create a brand new convenience. Visitors can trial-run an eco toilet. And… actually, we’ll stop there. There’s a limit to how many details we should give out. After all, what do you think we are? A toilet paper?
By Sarah J Bell, on 13 November 2013
The first one arrived by aeroplane, in three boxes, from across the Atlantic from Canada. The second will come in a taxi from Battersea. The third is patiently sitting in three timber crates in the bowels of the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, waiting to ride down the road to UCL on a forklift. The final toilet will be hand delivered by its loving owner on Saturday. The toilets are coming from near and far. UCLoo Festival is about to launch!
We have toilet attendants, we have makers of toilets, we have plumbers, we have toilet paper, and the toilets are on their way. Thanks to the support of our donors and a cast of thousands across UCL and our network of friends, we are almost ready to open the festival.
The UCLoo Festival will open on World Toilet Day, 19 November. The Festival will run for 2 weeks with a working ecological toilet in the UCL quad, an exhibition of prototype toilets, a make-a-thon and other events. UCLoo Festival will build on UCL’s pioneering efforts to advance sanitation technologies with a new emphasis on sustainability and urban waste management. We would be very pleased if you could join us for our main events (detailed below), visit the exhibitions and go to our loo! Please bring your family and friends, and promote the festival through your networks.
We can wait to meet you to talk shit!
- 19th November
- 2:30pm The North Observatory, UCL Main Quad
- Celebrate World Toilet Day by joining the queue outside our newly installed ecological toilet in the middle of the UCL Quad, to be opened and ‘christened’ by Provost Michael Arthur.
Meet the Makers
- 19th November
- 6:00pm Institute of Making, Mallet Place UCL
- Meet the makers of the toilets installed in the exhibition, including Scott Smith from Envirolet, Fernanda Costa from Loowatt and Claire Furlong from Sanitation Ventures. Please book via Eventbrite https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/meet-the-makers-tickets-9047650767
Rose George Keynote Lecture
- 22nd November
- 4:00pm **Please note room change: Roberts Building, Room 508, UCL (followed by a drinks reception in Chadwick G04)
- Free public lecture by author of ‘The Big Necessity’ Rose George. The lecture will discuss how to talk about something that is considered unmentionable. She’ll describe her writing process for The Big Necessity, and explain how she addressed the problem of ‘the world’s biggest unsolved public health crisis.’ The talk will look at efforts that have been made over the last five years since her book was published, and consider whether sanitation is still a dirty subject, and whether frankness has any effect on policy or practical change. Please book via Eventbrite https://www.eventbrite.co.uk/e/speaking-about-the-unspeakable-rose-george-public-lecture-and-reception-tickets-9047518371
UCLoo Festival Website, including the programme and details of the venues www.cege.ucl.ac.uk/ucloofestival
By Charlotte A Barrow, on 6 November 2013
This week’s post is by Philippa Ross, an Engineering student at UCL who is undertaking fieldwork in Africa.
Most people come to Uganda to see rare gorillas, take a safari or visit Lake Victoria, the largest lake in Africa and the largest tropical lake in the world. But I’m here for a far more exciting reason: to look at toilets. 160 toilets to be exact, and maybe a couple more for good measure! As part of my EngD research in the Centre for Urban Sustainability and Resilience at UCL, I am in Kampala, the capital of Uganda, to study the risk to health posed by poor sanitation systems. I’ll be working in some of the poorest areas in the city, where many people live on less than US $1 per day. It’s not just toilets I am looking at; I’m interested in the whole sanitation system including hygiene, drains, solid waste and pit emptying, among other things.
In the UK we just flush and forget when we go to the toilet, but in the slum areas of Kampala people have very small income to build flushing toilets, water for flushing is scarce, and there are no sewer systems to flush into! Most people in the slum areas of Kampala use a pit latrine. But what happens when the pit is full? Space is expensive in these over-crowed areas and people can’t just dig another pit when one gets full – so they must empty the pit. De-sludging trucks (beautifully named honeysuckers!) do exist but they are expensive and cannot access many of the narrow streets in slum areas, so many pits are bucketed empty by hand and the waste is often thrown into the drainage systems – which are open and where children often play. These drains also overflow in heavy rain, spreading highly concentrated faecal matter into the local area – this practice makes me question if it was worth going in the toilet in the first place!
So what’s the big deal? Well, over 2000 children die every day due to diseases caused by poor sanitation – that strikes me as a crisis and it certainly is a chronic disaster, which can be solved simply with good sanitation systems. It is interesting that these issues are very similar to those faced in London in 1840 when cholera was widespread, people collected water from the river or shallow wells and human waste was contained in cesspits which frequently over flowed into the drainage systems – turning the river Thames into a sewer! In 1858 the stench of the Thames was so bad in London that the Houses of Parliament were forced to close and made politicians take notice. It was gaining political support for the cause that led to the building of the sewer system in London as we know it.
Kampala has a population of 1.5 million and it is estimated that 60% live in slum areas, which make my 160 toilets a drop in the ocean. Looking at toilets all day isn’t everyone’s idea of fun, which is exactly the problem for Kampala City Council, responsible for sanitation in the city. They have no idea about the current sanitation situation in the slum areas, and the poor people living in these areas do not have a voice politically and cannot afford to improve their situation.
I am working in two slum areas: Bwaise III and Katwe III. Both areas are located in low-lying marsh areas, where no one else wants to build houses. They experience frequent floods and have a high water table. You can actually see where houses are sinking! The high water table adds an extra problem for building latrines – they have to be raised as a pit would collapse and contaminate the ground water. This makes building a latrine unaffordable for an individual family and therefore often 4 -6 families share latrines or use public latrines. I was surprised about how clean the shared toilets were as they are currently not recognised internationally as improved sanitation but many were in better condition that the household latrines I observed in the slums areas of Maputo, Mozambique (the other location of my research). At night time however, things get difficult if you share or use a public latrine. It is often not safe to go out at night and as a consequence people use ‘flying toilets ‘ – plastic bags or potties that often get emptied into the drains.
I have developed a participatory workshop that aims to collect data about the communities’ sanitation issues. The idea is to develop a link between local government to give poor communities a voice to raise their issues and to collect data which highlights poor sanitation ‘hot spots’ and can form a basis for city-wide sanitation planning. In the workshops, participants score their area based on a number of sanitary related indicators. The workshops have been great fun and the participants have been engaged and insightful. The results are triangulated and validated with results from a household survey (as mentioned earlier, my visit to 160 toilets!) which is a more traditional data gathering technique. The results are yet to be analysed, but the community commented that they thought the workshop would be more accurate as a household survey as the questions are very personal and people are embarrassed to say if they don’t use a latrine or don’t wash their hands. This supports my view that the technical engineering side of sanitation is the easy bit! Sociology, psychology and behaviour changes are the massive challenges.
So all that’s left to say is that after two weeks in Kampala I am also suffering from sanitary-related issues… Let’s just say I am appreciating the good toilet I have at my guest house. Not a good advert for a sanitation engineer!
By Sarah J Bell, on 17 October 2013
In collaboration with the Institute of Making, we are calling for applications to participate in a toilet Make-a-Thon as part of the UCLoo Festival. Read on to find out more about the design brief, the event and how to apply.
More than 2.6 billion people in developing countries do not have access to a safe toilet, and in the developed world toilets use water – one of our most precious resources – to wash human waste away. The flushing toilet and water based sanitation systems that we take for granted in cities like London are unlikely to be replicated in the rapidly urbanising cities of the global south. The world needs a new toilet and we’re starting right here at UCL!
In conjunction with the UCLoo Festival, the Make-a-Thon will challenge designers, scientists, engineers, artists, and entrepreneurs within the UCL community to create an ecological toilet for the 21st century.
In London alone, more than 400 million litres of drinking water are flushed down the toilet every day! Therefore, the Make-a-Thon will take on London’s toilet dilemma head on by using UCL as the client for a new ecological toilet prototype. Sited within a dense urban environment, the UCL site provides makers with the opportunity to design a toilet for domestic or commercial uses within the varied programs of UCL’s campus, ranging from offices to cafes to dormitories. As London’s Global University, makers will also have to consider how their design addresses the diverse cultural composition of the UCL community.
Envisioned as an environmental toilet prototype that could be piloted within the UCL sanitation network, the designed toilet must be waterless or low-flush. The toilet’s power source may be connected to UCL’s grid however it is essential that the toilet uses minimal power; ideally the unit will be energy neutral. The toilet may be connected to the existing sewerage network but it should be designed for nutrient recovery. The toilet must also comply with acceptable levels of hygiene and comfort in relation to smell and cleanliness. The toilet should be accessible and be easy to maintain.
Makers must attend the toilet and tool induction sessions on Wednesday November 20. Makers will then have the opportunity to create and refine their designs in preparation for an open exhibit at The Bartlett on December 3, 6-8pm.
Makers will receive inductions to allow them to use hand-tools and basic power tools in the Make Space. Use of specialist tools requiring additional training and authorisation will be highly limited.
Makers will receive a bursary of £100 from the Institute of Making towards the cost of materials. All other costs for materials must be met by the makers.
|19 November||6-8pm||Meet the Makers||UCL Make Space|
|20 November||10am-12pm||Toilet Induction||Chadwick 217|
|2-5pm||Make Space and Tools Induction||UCL Make Space|
|27 November||1-7:30pm||Make-A-Thon||UCL Make Space|
|3 December||6-7pm||Exhibition||Wates House|
After their induction, toilet makers are free to use the Make Space and tools during normal opening hours (Tues – Fri 10am – 5.30pm; Weds 1-7.30pm).
As part of the induction, makers will receive a package of materials to support the development of their ideas. This will include:
- Design brief
- Resource packet (series of documents, links, and design manuals)
- Annotated toilet bibliography
- Information on existing ecological toilets
- Information on existing waterless urinals
- Information on female urinals
The Make-a-Thon is open to all staff and students within the UCL community. Interested participants from a wide range of disciplines and departments are encouraged to apply. Applicants should be available to attend the toilet and tool induction on Wednesday 20 November and should be able to commit design and fabrication time in preparation for the 3 December exhibition.
To apply, please email Dr Sarah Bell (firstname.lastname@example.org) by midnight 4th November. Your email must include the following information:
- Position at UCL
- Answers to the following questions
- What attracts you to the idea of designing and making a new toilet?
- What experience or skills as a maker do you bring?
- What unique set of skills or knowledge would you bring to this project?
- Would you be interested in working on this project individually or as part of a team?
- Are you a member of the Institute of Making?
Successful applicants will be notified by 11 November.
By Charlotte A Barrow, on 15 October 2013
This week we are happy to feature a guest blog from Emma M. Jones, author of Parched City, an account of London’s drinking water published by Zero Books earlier this year (http://www.zero-books.net/books/parched-city):
Equating tap water with toilet water may seem incongruous but in most homes they are indeed one and the same. ‘Tap’ water sounds good to cook with, to brush our teeth with, or even to shower under while taking the odd, if inadvertent, sip. ‘Toilet’ water, as ‘tap’ water soon becomes when it flows into that essential piece of technology, seems fit only to sluice our bodily waste away; once the toilet has bacteriologically degraded the fluid from potable to a health hazard. Yet, seconds prior to the moment that it encountered the site of our daily defecation, the same water destined for the flush should have been as safe and wholesome as the law dictates to make the drinking grade.
Like the convenors of UCLoo Festival (opening on World Toilet Day, 19th November), I concur on the absurdity of this fact: ‘In London alone, more than 400 million litres of drinking water are flushed down the toilet every day.’ Reader, perhaps you are a pioneering greywater enthusiast, who has rigged dual water systems in your home at great expense. I think I am fairly safe in assuming, though, that the majority of us tend to rely on a sole plumbing system, which serves all our water-related needs. Drinking water is, therefore, for most daily users simply all water. To legally qualify as suitable for ‘domestic purposes’ – cooking, drinking, food preparation, washing – our tap water will have been through quite an ordeal.
From raw water’s underground or river source (the latter is more highly treated given its volatile environment), the liquid will first be channeled into a reservoir. Initially, even the decision to let supplies into this storage space may be timed to avoid pollution known to be travelling downstream, facilitated by a well-oiled communication system between the water industry and the Environment Agency. Once captured, the greatest proportion of water’s journey to potable will be made simply by settling for a period of time, which can last for weeks. A leading water scientist suggested to me that this natural process, though facilitated by the artificial space of a man-made lake, makes up 90% of water treatment – simply by adding the essential ingredients of time and space. This elegant truth about the efficacy of the storage factor on producing safe drinking water was established in the first decade of the 20th century by the bacteriologist Alexander Houston, of the Metropolitan Water Board, and continues to be applied to London’s water treatment today.
What has changed since Houston’s day is the sophistication of how water quality is measured, to detect minute traces of pesticides, for instance. Post-reservoir, the remaining 10% of water treatment involves an extensive à la carte menu of engineering and chemical interventions, including: aeration, ammonia, clarification, slow-sand filtration, ozonation, ultra-violet treatment, chlorination, granular activated carbon and reverse osmosis. Expert tasters, and sniffers, are also on hand to perform their duties, as are microbiologists and chemists who check the product, to ensure that what leaves the water treatment facility should be in a state to remain drinkable when it reaches our kitchen taps, and acceptable to us (a key concept).
Of all the things we use drinking-quality water for, flushing the loo has to be the most wasteful. Would we flush bottled water down the toilet? There is a vast monetary gulf between the drinking water we find in corner-shop fridges and the product from our taps, but both are the same precious freshwater resource that requires intense labour and material resources to produce. Tap water is not on the free market like bottled water, though in essence it is the same product.
Given the sophisticated engineering infrastructure and scientific expertise that has been honed over two centuries to allow London, other world cities and many nations to produce water at drinking quality standards agreed with the World Health Organization, the UCLoo Festival’s proposals to save this resource for its intended purpose seem very wise to me.
I hope the current systemic stasis in the use of water can be ruffled by this festival’s daring design proposals, and I look forward to joining that queue to spend a penny in a dry-dock loo and giving my tuppence-worth on the experience of toileting without water.
*Please consider making a small donation to our fundraising drive at http://spacehive.com/ucloofestival2013. We have almost reached our target, but need your help to make sure this important conversation happens!
You can also find more information about the UCLoo Festival, running 19th Nov. – 3rd Dec. at UCL’s Bloomsbury campus, through our Twitter (@UClooFestival) and Facebook (https://www.facebook.com/ucloofestival) accounts.
By Kate Oliver, on 11 October 2013
Last year, I got a call asking if I wanted to build infrastructure for a thousand hippies at a festival in the desert . Of course I said yes. I was offered a selection of projects, but the idea of building the least romantic items on a site filled with sparkly-eyed astrologers, plus the many opportunities to play with power tools, appealed to me; so Toilet Lead I became.
The festival [Nowhere: http://www.goingnowhere.org/] is hard to describe. A relative of the Burning Man festival in Nevada, it brings together about a thousand people in the remote Los Monegros region of Spain, to build from nothing a commerce-free, self-reliant community of artists that flowers for a week before being returned to pristine wilderness. All that you need you bring with you; water comes in cubes, food in tins, and waste is taken away with you afterwards. A harsh environment packed with revellers might sound challenging for toilet construction, but, just as armies march on their stomachs, festivals scrape along on their bottoms; which is where I and toilet crew come in.
The sanitary arrangements we have been using up until now are simple and compost-based (they are in need of a redesign; read on for why): basically boxes seated atop deep holes. As they get used, scoops of dust are tipped in, to ensure a balance of solids and liquids suitable for the ‘humanure’ to break down. This covers up faecal matter, hopefully preventing insects from touching down in the waste, and also, happily, smells.
I got together at a carpenter’s workshop in Hackney with our head builder, Monkey; some carpenters who knew what they were doing and a sanitary technician, to design a better, stronger, easier-to-build free-standing toilet cubicle. The bloom-and-bust nature of the festival means that many of our structures are based on the flat-pack, turning sheets of plywood into structures that will withstand the depredations of over-excited festivalgoers. In practical terms, this meant slicing a lot of squares and rectangles with newly-acquired circular saw skills, and jigsawing even more notches to interlock them.
Both myself and Monkey are rock and roll fiends, so there was no name for our toilet model but ‘Elvis’, although naming the various parts of the design did give some difficulty. Key base struts were clearly Jerry Lee Lewis and Chuck Berry (though, thinking about it, we did miss the opportunity to call one the ‘stray cat’); the particularly annoying one to cut was dubbed Millie Small, after the helium-pitched, lisping sugar-addict of the period. Finally, we had a working model; now to make 13 more.
Fast forward to July and I took a series of buses out to the nearest town to the festival, arrived a week before the hedonistic hordes and got building. I buttonholed a couple of woodworkers, some people keen to learn about power tools and some skilled in measuring, marking out and obsessive checking. Then my dedicated team and I laboured for a week in the heat and sawdust and whirring of machinery to churn out 13 brand new ply poop palaces. Interposed with duties such as digging trenches to stop storms flooding out sewage – a picture which, once it had been vividly explained, proved quite motivating – and trying to pry the finished items out from under the brushes of the artists enthusiastically decorating them so they could be deployed around the site, we finished this Herculean task and let the incoming sparkleponies at the Augean stables.
And then, among the acro-balance workshops, storytime sessions and dance-offs, some people started getting diarrhea, vomiting, and other intestinal distress. It spread. In this semiarid region, where water is a precious resource, cooking is done in field kitchens, toilets are rough and ready, and people are in holiday festival mood: there are plenty of opportunities for disease to get around.
Following the event, professional epidemiologists (you get all sorts of specialists at these festivals) studied the outbreak, and found evidence that at least some sickness was caused by Shigella sonnei bacteria. This virulent gastro-intestinal disease can require only 10-100 bacterial cells to spread further, with cells being shed by infected parties for up to 4 weeks afterwards. Together, this meant that despite copious amounts of sanitizing spray, regular bleach spray-downs, and the skilled attentions of the medical staff on site, many people were ill during and after the festival.
It’s likely that there were a number of causes of sickness on site. However, poorly washed hands and insects were very likely carriers of infected cells to new victims. Yes, that’s infected cells shed from someone else’s intestinal lining into diarrhea, and then getting in people’s mouths. While faecal-oral transmitted disease is officially gross, everyone did recover and was eventually OK.
We were relatively rich, privileged Bohemians living temporarily low-tech with hand-crafted compost toilets, and we learnt the hard way that sanitation is crucial. When things went wrong, we tried our best attempts to contain it, to provide copious bottles of sanitizer, to isolate sufferers, to block up every chink a fly could get through; but we still couldn’t stop it. We were lucky with the excellent Cruz Roja on site, and the healthcare in our home countries. We were lucky that we were already healthy, well-nourished, and had the clean water we needed while recovering.
Many people aren’t so lucky: they build for themselves and their communities and support themselves in the way we play at doing, but they don’t have an established sewer system to come home to, or gallons of potable water to throw down it.
We are treating this sickness outbreak as the close call it is, and looking at ways we can step up our sanitation. We need a system people can use hygienically, no matter how much they have enjoyed themselves recently; that insects cannot enter and spread infection from; that can tolerate the spectacular storms; and that can be removed and allow the environment to gracefully return to how it was before we came out. That’s for our short-term event.
The world needs a new toilet made for modern populations, not Victorian Britons. We all deserve safe sanitation, and even from my few weeks in the desert I learnt water is precious. Sanitation is fundamental. It is within the grasp of engineers, designers and people with plain old good ideas to do it; but we need to accept it’s a problem, and get working. It doesn’t get simpler than that.
*Please donate to UCLoo Festival – just £5 or less will help – to make sure this conversation happens: http://spacehive.com/ucloofestival2013 But hurry – there’s only one week left to reach our fundraising target!
 Technically it’s not a true desert, due to having rainfall. It’s a semidesert. But it has typical temperatures in the mid-thirties, pushing into forties; it’s dry, starkly beautiful, and dusty as hell, so most people stretch the term.
By Tse-Hui Teh, on 1 October 2013
I definitely did not expect to be talking about toilets; to anyone, at anytime. Not that it was a taboo topic, I just never identified it as an issue. I was never particularly scatological; I didn’t have a fear of flushing, and I never had a problem going. The queue for the ladies’ was probably my biggest concern until a few years ago. Then the toilet issue just grew.
I was researching the urban water-cycle. More particularly, how to equitably share and effectively use water resources throughout the community and the environment. Working in London, it was inevitable that I would quickly bump up against the toilet. About one-third of our daily water use goes down the toilet. Yes, one third – that’s approximately 50L of fresh, treated drinking water pumped directly to your point of use that is being used to move and dilute valuable fertilizer (your pee and poo). This is ludicrous and unbelievable in an age of sustainability, environmental protection, and shortages of both water and phosphorous.
But was it possible to change this? Were there any other outraged souls out there? Was anyone willing to change? And if so, how?
And that is how I started to talk about toilets.
It’s been an interesting journey so far. Waterborne sanitation is less entrenched that you might think. My research found that there were people in London who did care about their water consumption, but because the flushing toilet was so prevalent, they resourcefully altered their habits to encompass “yellow mellowing” to save water.
If you don’t know, the ditty is, “If it’s yellow, let it mellow. If it’s brown, flush it down.” I’m not sure where it started, the various urban myths are somewhere in California or Australia. In any case, it just means you only flush after a poo. What was strange for me is that more people did this than I expected. As I started talking to people, more of them ‘outed’ themselves as closet yellow mellowers. What a surprise!
The problem with “yellow mellowing” is that this is not seen as the proper way of using the flushing toilet. This is why “yellow mellowing” is usually done in the privacy of the home, and it is typical to run around and flush before having guests. This covert contradictory behaviour is not an optimal way of saving water, nor does it make it easier to harvest the nutrients from human waste as fertilizer.
Once you are on this line of thinking to save water and nutrients, most people see that the next logical step would be to make a non-flushing toilet system. This would make non-flushing the correct way to use the toilet because there is simply no flush to use. By not flushing, fertilizer could also easily be reclaimed.
This is amazing. These people, who use a waterborne sanitation system, thought it could be improved. The infrastructure is not as entrenched as I had imagined.
But this is not the end of the story. After this, the question is how would you collect the waste? It used to be the nightsoil man, but what would the alternative be in a contemporary city? Where would the collection points be? How would you effectively harvest the nutrients? Where would the fertilizer be distributed to? How would you stop it from smelling? How would you keep it hygienic? Who would manage it? How many people would need to change their toilet system to make this a viable option? Would other people also see it as a better option? What would make people change their toilet system when most people don’t even think about where the water comes from and where the waste goes? And a plethora more questions to be asked!
Your thoughts are greatly appreciated. What do you think it would take to change?
Have a say on the blog and come along to the UCLoo Festival, opening on World Toilet Day (19th November), to try out a vacuum flush toilet that only takes 200mL per flush, see some new prototype toilets and waste treatment systems, see how UCL researchers are answering some of these questions, and apply for the make-a-thon so that you can join in the creativity of answering some of the questions. Please also donate to UCLoo Festival – just £5 or less will help – to make sure this event happens: http://spacehive.com/ucloofestival2013 But hurry – we must reach our fundraising target by 17th October!
I look forward to hearing your thoughts and to seeing you at the UCLoo Festival!
By Charlotte A Barrow, on 23 September 2013
A couple of members of the project team recently took the London Loo Tour, in preparation for the UCLoo Festival taking place 19th November – 3rd December at UCL’s Main Quad (please donate – just £5 or less will help – to make sure this event happens: http://spacehive.com/ucloofestival2013 But hurry – we must reach our fundraising target by 17th October!)
We started at Waterloo Station where Rachel the Loo Tour Lady was easy to spot, toilet plunger in hand. Originally starting her loo research as a student trying to avoid fee-charging public toilets, Rachel now runs weekly walking tours around the City and will soon be branching out into additional areas, including a special Bloomsbury Loo Tour during the UCLoo Festival (booking info below: details of the UCLoo tours to be announced soon).
As one of the few public amenities in London allowed to charge a fee for use of their toilets, I was surprised by my own visit to find the Waterloo Station ladies’ room somewhat grim. Our guide informed us that it costs upwards of £20,000 per year to maintain a public toilet facility, but we were unable to determine how much the toilet fees amount to.
The second stop, and a much more spectacular one, was the Jubiloo public toilets at the Southbank Centre. Built for the Queen’s Diamond Jubilee and designed by architect Mark Power, the toilet costs 50p per use (compared with the station’s 30p charge) and has full-time attendants (hard to miss in their Union Jack waistcoats!) It also makes use of rainwater to flush toilets and wash floors.
To pay or not to pay? This is an essential question that constantly comes up in toilet politics. Rachel explained that boroughs are not, in fact, obligated to provide public conveniences – and many don’t these days. Our next stop was across the Thames near Embankment Station, where we came to an example of a public convenience which was privatized by Westminster in 2012 – like all conveniences in that borough – and also charges a princely 50p. On the up side, it was one that offers facilities for those with a range of disabilities and includes a hoist for wheelchair users.
Just around the corner outside Embankment Garden, we stood on top of the mysterious “Urilift” –one of three urinals, also provided by Westminster, that rise from the ground in the evenings to offer an alternative option for late-night male revellers.
Another, more permanent example of a street urinal was the Butterfly, outside of Charing Cross Station. The slick stainless steel design offers minimal privacy but hopes to prevent weeing on the street.
Next we visited the underground toilets at St. Paul’s, Covent Garden. Rachel expanded on the difficulties of providing public conveniences for women in the Victorian Era. She particularly mentioned one case: a proposed toilet for women in Camden Town, which was championed by none other than George Bernard Shaw (then a local vestryman) for many years. Female toilets were highly controversial (many people thought they were an ‘abomination’ and would be filled by flower girls cleaning their watercress) and the most successful were the ones that were discretely located underground. Toilets for gentlemen were far more appreciated elements of the cityscape. The gentleman’s loos at the Royal Exchange even had a sonnet dedicated to them.
Just off Covent Garden, we traversed the narrow Brydges Place alleyway. As prime territory for late-night weeing, it’s estimated that the streets of London are subjected to 10,000 gallons of urine per year; one contributor felt the need to apologise.
Next stop was the underground Cellar Door Cabaret – a bar and nightclub built inside a former men’s toilet. Once visited by Oscar Wilde and Joe Orton, the location now hosts only two cubicles, making use of “Smart Glass” which turns from transparent to opaque when the door is locked. We stopped for refreshments (and a toilet break) before continuing the walk. Nearby, another piece of toilet history was viewed at the mint green Star Yard urinal; maybe the only cast-iron Victorian model remaining in the City.
The cramped quarters of the urinal was in stark contrast with the enormous, lounge-like ladies’ loo in The Knights Templar pub, our next visit, which contained multiple chambers; bronze and tiled hand-washing facilities and even couches. Other pub stops included a Community Loo Scheme participant; Ye Olde London is one of 75 establishments paid £600 each yearly by the City of London to allow the public to make use of their toilets without needing to make a purchase. Unfortunately, the sign in the window was barely noticeable, and the scheme doesn’t seem especially well-publicised.
Our second-to-last stop was the free toilets of St. Paul’s Cathedral, winner of the Loo of the Year Award in 1995 despite the continued use of original plumbing. And finally, the tour ended on a high note at the rooftop patio of One New Change. Although we didn’t see any noteworthy toilets, the beautiful view across London was a perfect spot to contemplate the rich history of loos in London.
With impressive historical knowledge and a great sense of humour, Rachel’s Loo Tours are well worth a visit. You can book yours at:
There will be special UCL campus and wider Bloomsbury tours available to book during the UCLoo Festival, taking place 19th November to 3rd December.
For more photos and to see a short video of the Loo Tour Lady explaining the idea behind her project, please visit our Facebook and Twitter accounts: www.facebook.com/ucloofestival @UCLooFestival.
By Barbara J Penner, on 17 September 2013
This blog entry makes the case for why toilets are relevant to discussions of health, gender and urbanism, and argues that toilets are just as relevant to a so-called developed world city like London as they are to a developing world city like Nairobi.
I should start off by acknowledging that toilets are not nearly as invisible in public discourse as they were a decade ago. One reason for their new visibility is the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, which in the year 2002 set the target of halving the number of people without basic sanitation – currently estimated at 2.6 billion people – by 2015. This goal still looks very far away (indeed, this is supposedly the most off-track of all MDG targets) largely because sanitation has always been an unloved and underfunded cause in comparison to its sexier and cleaner companion: water. Nonetheless, the sanitation field has lately been energized by the arrival of important new champions from WaterAid to the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, who have seriously invested in their drive to Reinvent the Toilet.
The reason for the new interest in sanitation is obvious: every day, thousands of children under five continue to die due to faecally transmitted diseases, deaths that improved sanitation could do much to prevent (studies suggest that improved sanitation could create a 30% reduction in child mortality). Sanitation is also much more cost-effective than most other interventions, which is why toilets are often referred to by NGOs as ‘the cheapest medicine’ – every dollar invested is said to return $3 to $34 in terms of improved productivity. But apart from these arguments, other justifications are also emerging that emphasize the environmental and social benefits of sanitation. And study after study proves one thing: few social groups benefit more from improved sanitation than women.
There are many explanations for why clean, secure toilet facilities with running water help create safer and more equitable societies for women. Below are some of the main ones:
- clean safe toilets ensure better female health – not going to the bathroom can create medical problems like urinary tract infections, resulting in missed days at work and school
- clean safe toilets reduce female labour – it is usually women who carry water for household needs, including personal cleansing
- clean safe toilets limit exposure to sexual violence – when women, particularly in slum areas, travel long distances to find a toilet or defecate in the open (usually at night), they are vulnerable to assault and harassment
- safe clean school toilets greatly increase the chance of young women staying on in education after puberty and the onset of menstruation.
In other words, the provision of toilets positively contributes to female health, safety, and dignity in many ways. This recent realization has helped secure stronger support for toilets in international development circles – this year the UN finally officially recognized 19 November as World Toilet Day.
It fascinates me, however, that this discussion about the global sanitation crisis focuses almost exclusively on what is happening ‘out there’: in Southeast Asia, India, and Africa in particular. What about our own situation here in the Global North? Of course, we are blessed with (almost) universal sewerage coverage – most of us will never know the indignities of outdoor defecation. But this doesn’t mean that we can afford to be complacent about toilets, particularly if we’re women. Toilets are important for women here, for the same reasons they’re important for women in the developing world: the lack of clean, safe ‘away-from-home’ options negatively affects female health and mobility, especially at times when women are pregnant or menstruating. This does not seem to be a surprising or controversial fact to point out. Indeed, women’s organizations in London have been very vocal about this issue since at least the 1870s.
Yet, overall, our cultural views towards toilets in the UK might still be characterized as ambivalent — even schizophrenic. On the one hand, we clearly do value toilets on some level: Victorian London’s pioneering sewer system continues to be recognized as a source of great national pride and in our own homes, bathrooms are larger and more lavish than ever. Yet the trend toward private comfort contrasts sharply with the general condition of public facilities; 50 percent of UK public toilets have been closed since 1995. Many of those that remain have been privatized and charge fees – most loos in Westminster now cost 50p. It constantly surprises me that there is not more public awareness — or outrage — about developments, which so obviously degrade the quality of our street life.
This is ultimately why it is important that, sewers or no, we should not exempt cities in the Global North from current debates about sanitation. It is only by looking at sanitation cross-culturally that we may come to consider our own situation far more critically than we have done thus far. At the very least, surveying the sanitation field globally will remind us that it is incredibly short-sighted to take toilets for granted, as few public amenities do more to create healthy, livable, age-friendly, and equitable cities.
*Please donate to UCLoo Festival – just £5 or less will help – to make sure this conversation happens: http://spacehive.com/ucloofestival2013 But hurry – we must reach our fundraising target by 17th October!
- Maggie Black and Ben Fawcett, The Last Taboo: Opening the Door on the Global Sanitation Crisis (London, 2008)
- Rose George, The Big Necessity: Adventures in the World of Human Waste (London, 2008)
 United Nations University, Sanitation as a Key to Global Health: Voices from the Field (2010), p. 11. Available at: http://inweh.unu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/05/2010_Sanitation_PolicyBrief.pdf
 See, for instance, Amnesty International, “Risking rape to reach a toilet: Women’s experiences in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya” (7 July 2010). Available at: http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/AFR32/006/2010. This has also been emphasized in the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council’s dramatic postcard publicizing the problem. (See image above.)
 See Barbara Penner, ‘A World of Unmentionable Suffering: Women’s Public Conveniences in Victorian London,’ Journal of Design History xiv/1, (2001), pp. 35-52.