Ukraine’s ambivalent future
By Sean L Hanley, on 4 November 2014
Events in Ukraine have polarised opinion, but the country’s present and future are best understood as permeated by ambivalence, argues Alena Ledeneva.
The situation in Ukraine might grasped best by a specialist on geopolitics, a scholar of the (il)legitimacy of power, an ethnographer of insurgencies, an analyst of media propaganda wars, a trauma therapist, or by a psychologist of phobias and love-hate relationships. I have none of these specialisms, but I share their intellectual challenge: the theme of ambivalence.
As ‘East’ and ‘West’ embark on another cycle of ideological confrontation and political standoff, there is little room left for marginal positions or ambivalent attitudes. As the outside world lashes out at Putin over the Crimea and East Ukraine, Russians turn wartime patriotic. Yet paradoxically, exactly because it is impossible to achieve a consensus – and because the black-and-white positions over the Crimea and east Ukraine split families, friendships, and international clubs – it is the understanding of grey areas and backgrounds that may help define the way forward for Ukraine.
One legacy shared by most survivors of oppressive political regimes is what George Orwell called ‘‘doublethink’’ – which Yury Levada and Alexander Zinoviev branded as being the key feature of Homo sovieticus. Under late socialism, when present-day elites in Russia and Ukraine were growing up, it was irrelevant whether people believed official ideological messages or not. Instead, the relation to officialdom became based on intricate strategies of simulated support and on ‘nonofficial’ practices.
Individual doublethink developed into collective double standards that implied the ability to hold contradictory views in private and in public and the capacity to switch between them smoothly, when applied to ‘us’ and ‘them,’ to ‘ordinary citizens’ and to the Party leaders, and to one’s personal circle and to society as a whole.
In its sociological sense, ambivalence, as defined by Robert Merton, refers to incompatible normative expectations of attitudes, beliefs, and behaviour. The incompatibility is assigned to a status and the social structures that generate the circumstances in which ambivalence is embedded. The core type of sociological ambivalence puts contradictory demands upon the occupants of a status in a particular social relation. Since these norms cannot be simultaneously expressed in behaviour, they come to be expressed in an oscillation of behaviours.
In the context of modernity, ambivalence is associated with fragmentation and failure of manageability. Zygmunt Bauman defined ambivalence as the possibility of assigning an object or an event to more than one category. Bauman views it as a language-specific disorder, with its main symptom being the acute discomfort we feel when we are unable to read the situation properly and to choose between alternative actions.
Those who have detailed knowledge of the geography and the economic history of Ukraine or have done exhaustive research on the conflicting accounts on the current situation end up developing symptoms of ambivalenceBauman lists ambivalence among ‘the tropes of the ‘other’ of Order: ambiguity, uncertainty, unpredictability, illogicality, irrationality, ambivalence, brought about by modernity with its desire to organise and to design’ Ambivalence thus implies a form of disorder and negativity. In my view, ambivalence can be singled out from Bauman’s list for its bi-polarity, oscillating duality and the relative clarity of polar positions.
I note the clear visions represented by the White House and the Kremlin, even if they leave me feeling schizophrenic. Russia has gone anti-American yet again, but with a passion as for the first time. The United States’ approach toward Russia, as Andrew Wilson points out, reflects traditional concerns, even phobias, based on an inadequate understanding of the country, in part because Russia has ceased to be a focus of U.S. foreign policy. The US approach to Ukraine is probably even less informed..
These irreconcilable visions constitute a thesis and antithesis that co-exist without a possibility of synthesis, yet without an uncertainty as to what they are. The catch is that the clarity of polarized positions does not help in dealing with the complexities at hand. An adequate understanding of the situation in Ukraine is unachievable without complicating matters, viewing modern Ukraine in the context of its geographical, historical, economic, and political bi-polarity and impossible without understanding the clash between the completely different modus operandi of Ukraine and Russia vis-a-vis Europe.
‘Open Secrets’ of Ukraine’s sistema
In psychoanalysis, ambivalence is often associated with ambiguity, but the differences are significant, Ambivalence is a bi-polar concept, not a multi-polar one as is the case with ambiguity. Its poles (thesis and anti-thesis) are defined and there is little uncertainty as to what these poles, or co-existing views, attitudes, and beliefs are.
The uncertainty is created by the unpredictability of their actualization. While ambiguity is best illustrated by shifting centres of power and political influence (as represented by the EU’s multi-polar model and the positions of its individual members on sanctions), ambivalence is an outcome of conflicting constraints.
The ambivalence of the Ukrainian elite can be defined as substantive ambivalence: they are Russian speaking, Russian educated, and Russian thinking individuals, who are fighting their own background; as functional ambivalence: they are criticising and attacking a system that they themselves had been an integral part of; and as normative ambivalence: they are committing to pro-democratic values that contradict their political behaviour (for example, their position on the EU membership runs contrary to their business interests).
The ambivalence of the Ukrainian elite is distinct from duplicity, from the deliberate deceptiveness in behaviour or speech, or from double-dealing. When molded by clashing constraints, ambivalence can result in the ability for doublethink (the illogical logic), dual functionality (functionality of the dysfunctional), and double standards (for us and for them). Ambivalence is best understood through the paradoxes of modernity, such as the role of hackers in advancing cybersecurity, for example, or the elites that propagate democracy and rule of law but are ready to use any amount of force to maintain themselves in power, as Vladimir Pastukhov argues.
Living with ambivalence
My take on Ukraine evolves from my understanding of sistema, a network-based system of governance in Russia, which operates behind the facades of formal institutions. One ‘open secret’ of the Ukrainian sistema is that it has been unable to serve its own reproduction: elites simply have grabbed too much. I agree with framing of Maidan as ‘anti-sistema’ forces and his argument that people want to reboot the system but don’t have methods for doing so.
The other ‘open secret,’ however, is that ex-Maidans and Maidans-to-be are unable to effect a fundamental change: sistema is dead, long live sistema! This points to a certain grip, if not an effective grip, of sistema forces, even when weakened by violence and by its own protagonists.
The bad apples vs. bad barrel dilemma of the Ukrainian governance system, which is sometimes referred to as a kleptocracy, cannot be resolved in a non-ambivalent way. It is not a question of changing all the apples (people of the former sistema), or of changing the barrel (the regime). Living with ambivalence will remain the name of the game until Ukraine becomes capable of sustaining itself as an independent economic unity. In the last twenty-five years, there has been very little progress in this direction. The tragedies of the 2014 military confrontations in East Ukraine have made the future of Ukraine even more difficult
Alena Ledeneva is Professor of Politics and Society at UCL-SSEES
This post was first published on Cultural Anthropology online at and is reproduced with permission.
Note: This article gives the views of the author(s), and not the position of the SSEES Research blog, nor of the School of Slavonic and East European Studies, nor of UCL.