London Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 20 April 2012
London Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb (1792-1902) and the Old Kent Road School (1902-1968)
The first free school for deaf children of the poor in the UK, the London Asylum was founded in 1792 by the Rev. John Townsend. Here is a brief chronology.
1792 Opened in Grange Road, Bermondsey.
1809 Moved to Old Kent Road, Southwark.
1840 The streets each side of its grounds were named Townsend Street and Mason Street after its founders.
1862 Some pupils moved to temporary accommodation in Margate.
1875 New building opened in Margate – younger pupils educated in London, older pupils in Margate.
1883 Younger pupils moved from London to temporary accommodation in Ramsgate.
1886 Old asylum demolished and new building for younger pupils erected on its site.
1902 Pupils in London moved to Margate (now the Royal School for Deaf Children, Margate), and building and site sold to the London School Board.
1903 The Old Kent Road School opened, with a school for physically handicapped children on the ground floor and a school for deaf children on the second floor. Properly speaking therefore, this school was a new foundation.
1904 London County Council took over the functions of the London School Board.
1908 J.D.Rowan became headmaster until he retired in 1932 (British Deaf Times, 29 (341-2), 56).
1965 The Inner London Education Authority took over the functions of London County Council when the latter ceased to exist.
1968 The Old Kent Road School closed and a new school, Grove House in Elmcourt Road, Norwood, opened, surviving until 1999.
Deaf Pupils Included (among others) –
ARNOLD, George (1855-1922) Deafened at the age of 8 and educated at the Old Kent Road and St John’s College, a private school in Margate; on leaving school trained as a tailor with Mr W. Fletcher, tailor to King King Edward VII.
ALLERY, Bernard (1921-93) Team manager and chairman of Lewisham Deaf Football Club; educated at Old Kent Road School and Anerley Deaf School.
ASH, Harry (1863- 1934) Deafened by scarlet fever at 18 months; sent to the London Asylum in the Old Kent Road when he was 11, and later to Margate; designer at the Hogarth Works, Chiswick.
BLOUNT, Hiram (1870?-1932) Deafened at the age of 5; educated at Old Kent Road, London; missioner to the deaf in Plymouth from 1899 until his death in 1932.
DAVIDSON, Thomas (1842-1919) Private pupil of Thomas Watson at the Old Kent Road Institution, who became an artist specialising in naval scenes.
GLOYN, John Pugh (1830-1907) Son of a London solicitor; deafened between 2 and 3 years old and educated at the Old Kent Road Asylum ; set up in business as a mathematical instrument maker; involved in ‘deaf work’ in a voluntary capacity until 1872 when he was appointed Missionary for the Northern District of the Royal Association for the Deaf and Dumb.
POLCHAR, Mark Michael (1903-94) Pupil at Old Kent Road and Anerley Deaf Schools; founded Clapham Deaf Club’s cricket and football teams in 1925.
(There are references for all the above people for those interested.)
An historical sketch of the purposes, progress, and present state, of the asylum for the support and education of the indigent deaf and dumb children, situate in the Kent Road, Surrey: with the rules of the society, and a list of its officers and governors. London, March, 1831, see Margate School institutional archive box.
History (up to 1843) The Edinburgh Messenger No.2, p.10-11, 1843
History (up to 1876). Deaf and Dumb Magazine (Glasgow), 1879, 7, 40-43. (illus)
History (up to 1880). Deaf and Dumb Magazine (Glasgow), 1880, 8, 14-26. (illus)
Quarterly Review of Deaf-Mute Education, 1887, 1, 167-78, 197-202.
History, British Deaf-Mute and Deaf Chronicle, 1894, 3, 81-82. (illus)
Teacher of the Deaf, 1904, 2, 29.
British Deaf Times, 1906, 3, 121-25. (photos)
ALLERY, B. Old Kent Road School for the Deaf. The author, 1969 and 1971. (RNID Library locastion: C5664 (REF)
also in: British Deaf News, 1969, 7(5), 148-49.
A mother and her son. British Deaf News, 1997, Jun, 7. (Mrs Creasy and her deaf son John were the inspiration for Rev Townsend’s action; John Creasy trained William Hunter, the Asylum’s first deaf teacher.)