By library-orthopaedics, on 15 October 2020
We’re sorry but we will be no longer adding new posts to this blog.
The good news is the blog will remain online in its current state for you to enjoy.
We thank you all for reading and posting your comments.
A big thank you also to Dominic for his many insightful posts.
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 14 May 2020
Continued from Heathen Bristol
Burns moved back to London “engaged by the committee” of the then ‘Adult Institution for providing Employment, &c. for the Deaf and Dumb,’ where he served until June, 1845, when he was obliged to join the old congregation, who, under the Rev. Robert Simson, M.A., appointed him biblical instructor and assistant secretary.” (ibid)*
After 1849 he was the head and honorary secretary of this organization.
TO THE DEAF AND DUMB AND THEIR FRIENDS. Price 2s. 6d.. A FAITHFUL AND CHARACTERISTIC LITHOGRAPHED PORTRAIT of MR. MATTHEW ROBERT BURNS, DEAF AND DUMB FROM BIRTH, AND FOR THIRTY TEARS Church of England Biblical Instructor to the Deaf and Dumb. THIS PORTRAIT is not only valuable to his admirers and to the earnest reclaimers from misery and degradation of this section of waste mind, but to the Phsycologist and Philanthropist. Its Photographic correctness gives evidence of the unusual energy of mind and health of body enjoyed at 61 years of age by one who has been educated to active and elevated exertion, whose fellow-sufferers, when neglected and undeveloped, are doomed to much below the averaged period of human existence. Apply, by letter, to Mr Thomas Jacob Cook, 76, Fore-street, City. EC. (1860).
DEAF AND DUMB. THE gratuitous Dinner will given to those of the Mutes who are in indigent circumstances of Shaftesbury Hall Chapel. Aldersgate-street, Thursday, the 26th Inst., at 1 o’clock, the Gate of St. John of Jerusalem, Clerkenwell. The Committee trust that the subscriptions of the benevolent supporters of the above will enable them to provide the poor Mutes with their usual plentiful supply of Christmas fare. In such a work of love we shall greatly rejoice, we know the deaf and dumb labour under a threefold affliction, namely want of hearing, want of speech, and want of money. Inscrutable wisdom has placed them amongst the speaking commu-nity, and perhaps this for the very purpose of exercising Christian sympathies; and if we neglect them, we are truly also doing evil to our own souls. Further atletnpts to influence the public we would refrain from. A sweet scripture says, “He that hath mercy on the poor, happy is he.” MATTHEW ROBERT BURNS. Biblical Instructor, and Secretary the above Chapel. (Clerkenwell News – Wednesday 25 December 1861)
In 1866 J.P. Gloyn took over this role, and the remainder of his life was apparently lived in obscurity, with Burns surviving on £40-£50 per year. Gilby recalls how Burns would visit his parents, who would help him out when they could. He died of bronchitis on 21st of January 1879.
The Action on Hearing Loss archive contains a small selection of his letters from his latter years. I speculate that someone also had a scrapbook thats seems to have had a lot of Burns memoranda and there are photos of documents in the Action on Hearing Loss collection that may no longer exist. Someone could use these disparate sources to put together an iteresting sketch of his life and work.
*Unusually I have failed to compile bibliographic notes or references for this or the much earlier Burns item. This section was intended to use his remaining letters, and I cannot say where the top quote was from as I wrote this item over two years ago. Without full access to the collection, that is unfortunately now impossible.
This may well be the last blog I write here, due to various circumstances including the closing of the libraries and the Covid-19 lockdown. I had a stack of potential items that would have been put up here in the remaining time we had. They may or may not see the light of day in another space, depending on access to research matrerials and resources.
Copyright on what I have written in these blogs resides with me as author, however when it comes to images used on the blog it is a whole lot more complicated. Broadly, where images are photos the copyright resides with the image taker, and continues for 70 years after the death of the author. This is complicated when the work is anonymous and it becomes an ‘orphan work’.
I hope the items in the blog have been of some interest and I would be especially pleased if they encouraged young Deaf people to take an interest in Deaf History.
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 14 May 2020
Scottish Deaf Day Schools
“In the 1880s and previous there was a Deaf School attached to the Glebe School under Misses Galbraith and Fisher.”
1885 Dundee (see a previous blog entry)
Then came the Elementary Education (Blind and Deaf Children) Act 1893 after which schools had to be registered and checked.
1910 Glasgow, Renfrew Street Special Hard of Hearing School
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 14 May 2020
LIVERPOOL SCHOOL FOR THE DEAF AND DUMB (1825-2003)
Originally known as The School for the Deaf and Dumb, established in Liverpool in 1825, in 1839 Oxford Street, Liverpool, premises were bought. In 1927 the name changed to Liverpool School for the Deaf and it moved to Lancaster Road, Birkdale. It became then the Liverpool School for the Partially Deaf (LSPD) in 1948 under the headship of Frank Denmark. He retired in 1956 and Mr Furness took over. There were further name changes, in 1957 to the School for the Partially Hearing, Birkdale (SPHB), then in 1973 to Birkdale School for Hearing Impaired Children. The school closed on 23rd July 2003.
Quarterly Review of Deaf-Mute Education, 1889, 2, 69-79.
The centenary of the Liverpool School for the Deaf and Dumb, 1825-1925: a brief history of the school. Deaf Quarterly News, 1925 (80), 2-5; (81), 2-3. (photo)
Prospectus 1936 B11854 [in Liverpool archive box]
Annual reports 1825-1828, 1842-1854, 1856-1858, 1861-1872, 1877, 1884, 1909-1912, 1922-1927, 1929-1934, 1936, 1937, 1939, 1943, 1944, 1946, 1947, 1973-4
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 14 May 2020
Johann Konrad Ammann (1669-1724), a Swiss doctor, produced one of the earliest books on a method of teaching a born Deaf person to speak. The book, Surdus Loquens, was published in 1692, then translated into English a year later.
The Action on Hearing Loss copy really does have wooden boards, leather covered and with a bite out of the lower right of the front cover.
You can read the whole (short) book on the wonderful Project Gutenberg.
Frederick Collins of Bristol (1866-19?) “makes very intelligible signs and gives proof of great thought and memory”
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 13 March 2020
I came across a photostat – I choose that word because of the age of the copy – of a school entry record for Frederick Collins (1866-?), when he went into the Bristol District Institution. The Institution was founded in 1841, and closed in 1907. It moved from Park Row, the address on the form, in 1874, so this form dates from prior to that. The form seems incomplete – unless we suppose it to be a copy?
Frederick and his sister, Charlotte Elizabeth Collins (1871-?), were both born deaf. They both attended the Bristol Institution and we can see them both there in the 1871 census. Frederick became a French Polisher, and married a Deaf lady, Jessie Miller (18-?), daughter of a cab inspector, and they had three surviving children in 1911.
IN all cases of application for Admission into this Institution, Answers are to be made in writing to the following Questions ; to which must be subjoined the attestations of a Medical Practitioner, the Minister of the Parish, or two credible witnesses. This Paper is then to be returned to the Honorary Secretary for the inspection of the Committee ; and should it appear that the Child is a proper object, its name will be inserted in the list of approved Applicants.
1. What is the name of the Child ? Frederick Collins.
2. When was the child born ? Filton, Nr Bristol, Born May 29th, 1866.
3. What is the name and occupation of its parents ? John & Elizabeth Collins, Farmer.
4. Where do they reside ? Filton, Nr. Bristol.
5. Was the child born Deaf, or has become so in consequence of disease ? If, so, state at what age, and by what disease ? Born Deaf.
6. Do the other senses seem perfect ? Yes, in every particular.
7. Has the child ever been affected with idiotcy, or by fits, or with any nervous complaint, and is it free from infectious disorder ? Never has been in any way affected and is perfectly free from infectious disorder.
8. Has the child had the small-pox, or been vaccinated ? And, if so, when ? Has been vaccinated on the 26th of Augt 1866.
9. Is the child generally, healthy ? Yes.
10. Has the child any personal defect or deformity ? No.
11. Can the child dress and wait on itself, and are its personal habits cleanly ? Can dress himself and is particularly cleanly in his habits.
12. How many brothers and sisters has the child ? Three brothers & two sisters.
13. Are any others of the family Deaf and Dumb ? Yes, one. A sister.
14. Were the parents related ‘before marriage’? If so, in what manner ? First Cousins.
15. Does the child make intelligible signs, and give proofs of thought and memory ? Yes makes very intelligible signs and gives proof of great thought and memory.
16. What instruction has the child received, and can he or she form letters ?
17. State the name and address of some respectable Householder or Parish Officers willing to give security for the payment of such sum, for the board of the child (if admitted) as the Committee shall appoint, ( £10 ) and for the fulfilment of the other condition contained in the Extracts from Rules and By-Laws ?
CERTIFICATE OF MEDICAL PRACTITIONER
I, the undersigned, do hereby certify, that the Answers to the foregoing Questions, referring above named Child are true. Witness my hand this day of …… 18….
ATTESTATION OF FRIENDS AND MINISTER, OR TWO CREDIBLE WITNESSES. We, the undersigned, do hereby certify, that the Answers to the foregoing Questions are made under our personal knowledge and are true. Witness our hands this day of …… 18 …….
As we see, Charlotte and Frederick’s parents were cousins so probably had inherited hearing loss. Jessie, Frederick’s wife, was however deaf through illness aged two.
In 1911 Charlotte was living with her unmarried brother and sister at 11 Fairlawns Avenue, Filton, working as an upholstress. Clearly the Bristol Institution equipped the siblings with the skills to have a job with an income that they could live on. I have not had time to discover what became of these three Deaf people in later life.
More ordinary people again! Let us celebrate ordinary lives as well as famous lives.
1871 Census – Class: RG10; Piece: 2573; Folio: 60; Page: 12; GSU roll: 835271
1881 Census – Class: RG11; Piece: 2476; Folio: 119; Page: 19; GSU roll: 1341596
1891 Census – Class: RG12; Piece: 1973; Folio: 126; Page: 29; GSU roll: 6097083
1901 Census – Class: RG13; Piece: 2360; Folio: 74; Page: 41
1911 Census – Class: RG14; Piece: 15091; Schedule Number: 262
Below I give the pupil list for the 1871 census in the Bristol Institution. I find it very interesting that there are so many pupils for whom their birthplaces were unknown – were they foundlings, illegitimate? I have of course not sufficient time to research that…!
|Fanny||Warren||Servant||17||1864||Female||General Serv Domestic||Frampton Cottrell||Gloucestershire|
|Elizabeth||Alsop||Servant||23||1858||Female||General Serv Domestic||Iron Acton||Gloucestershire|
|Elizabeth||Stowell||Servant||23||1858||Female||Domestic Serv Kitchenmaid||Gilivern||Breconshire|
|Phoebe A.||Brown||Inmate||10||1871||Female||Scholar||Bream Westside||Gloucestershire|
|Joshua||Williams||Inmate||12||1869||Male||Scholar||Westbury On Trym||Gloucestershire|
This was the first blog for several weeks – I confess to being rather disillusioned by things, and overwhelmed by events here.
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 26 February 2020
One of our treasures and oldest books, is Giambattista della Porta‘s book on cryptography, De furtivis Literarum Notis (1563). Della Porta (ca. 1535-1615) was born near Naples. He was another of those great Italians of that age, like Cardano, who pushed forward the boundaries of knowledge. He has been called the towering figure of cryptography in that period.
This has nothing to do with hearing or deafness. When Selwyn Oxley was acquiring his Ephphatha library, this would probably have interested him because it was a system of communication.
According to the Springer Encyclopedia of Cryptography and Security, there is a maxim named after him –
Della Porta’s maxim: Only a cryptanalyst, if anybody, can judge the security of a cryptosystem (Auguste Kerckhoffs, formulating the knowledge of the sixteenth century cryptologist Giambattista Della Porta, Kerckhoffs (1883) Auguste, La Cryptographie militaire. Journal des Sciences Militaires, 9 (January) 5–38, (February) 161–191).
Our copy is sadly not perfect – it has a water stain and a missing cipher wheel, or volvelle.
You can read more about him on Wikipedia –
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 14 February 2020
Charlotte Rolfe, or Lottie, was the youngest daughter of Charles Rolfe, a tailor, and his wife Maria Rolfe. She was born in Bury St. Edmunds on the 2nd of February, 1856. There is no suggestion on the census returns that she was deaf until the 1901 census, so we may assume she had a form of progressive hearing loss, though it rendered her almost completely deaf. At earlier stages of life she was a servant, but later worked as a dressmaker. There were a lot of Rolfes in Suffolk, so they can be confusing, but I am sure of my identification of the right Charlotte Rolfe.
I came across her in the British Deaf Monthly (BDM), where she wrote what might be considered an anti-war poem –
LONGING FOR PEACE.
BRIGHT is the moon, and the wind, softly blowing,
Wafts the sweet scent of the newly mown hay :
I feast on the scene till my heart is o’erflowing—
So fair is the earth, both by night and by day!
So peaceful the scene, can it be (ay, too truly !)
That War’s mighty standard’s still reared o’er the world ?
Oh, when will the nations become less unruly,
And the Banner of Peace be for ever unfurled ?
Who can forget how our soldiers are lying
Sick, wounded, distressed, from their friends far away ?
And daily are added more sick and more dying—
For them and their kindred I’ll cease not to pray !
In war a dear brother—I still mourn him—perished,
Who toiled and served nobly his Queen for awhile—
Deep, deep in my heart is his memory yet cherished
While he peacefully sleeps on the bank of the Nile.
‘Tis late, nay, ’tis early ! soon day will be dawning :
I’ll rest for awhile—gather strength for the day,
And in the bright sunshine I’ll spend the glad morning,
Then Zephyrus ! winnow my sorrow away.
I think that is a very good amateur poem. That she submitted a poem to the editors, suggests that she was familiar with the BDM, and felt herself a part of the larger deaf community.
I take it her brother had died a few years before, perhaps serving under Kitchener, but I have not identified him – her parents had a lot of children and I have only a limited time to research this. I then found nothing more, until, that is, I looked in the British Newspaper Archive. That turned up another sad story, this time concerning Charlotte’s sister. I think the writer or printer added an incorrect age for her sister, who was I think 47 rather than 57. *
This story appears in the Hackney and Kingsland Gazette, for Wednesday the 9th of September, 1903 –
HOMERTON WOMAN’S SUICIDE
A SAD STORY
An inquest was held the Hackney Coroner’s Court Monday morning on the body of Mary Ann Dennison. 57, the wife of John Dennison, a silver finisher, of 31. Church-road. Homerton, who died from the effects of oxalic acid poisoning.
The husband of the deceased said his wife had no trouble of which was aware. When he left home on Friday morning she appeared all right, but returning the evening he found the room in darkness. He struck a light and then saw his wife lying dead on the sofa – dressed, with the exception of boots and stockings. On a chair near was a bottle and beside it a bill in which the bottle had evidently been wrapped by the chemist. Curiously enough, however, the name of the chemist had bean cut out. On the back of the bill the following note had been written to deceased’s sister, Miss Charlotte Rolfe, of Kentish Town : –
“Dear Lottie, – My head has been bad for years, and then I say and do foolish things. Poor old Jack is not to blame; he has been goodness itself to me! I can’t do so — l am best out of the way. God will call for my dearest of children! Don’t let them know I have taken my own life. – Tiny.” Tiny, explained the witness, was the name by which his wife was familiarly known.
The Coroner: The jury will naturally ask, “Why did she take her life?” What reason can yea give for that ?
Witness; Well, sir, I can only say I have found her come home now and again the worse for drink. And that upset her mind ?- I don’t know, sir, but I have seen her reeling now and again.
How often ? Pretty often, lately, sir.
Once a week ? -Once a day, sir, and been going for years on and off.
During that time she has threatened to take her life several times ? -Yes, sir.
What reason did she give ? -She said she was tired. I always asked her what she meant by it, and I never could get anything out of her.
Charlotte Rolfe, to whom the note was addressed, said she last saw her sister on Friday week, when she made the curious remark that a number of people had committed suicide lately. This witness was so deaf that the Coroner had write down the questions he wished her to answer.
Dr. J. C. Baggs said he found the bottle referred to contained a small quantity of oxalic acid. Deceased’s mouth was burned by some corrosive poison, and death was due to oxalic acid poisoning.
A verdict of Suicide whilst temporally insane was returned.
Mary Ann clearly had a form of depression of long standing, and was unable to articulate it, even to her family.
She was retired at the time of the 1939 register, and living at The Sycamores, Beck Row, Mildenhall. Her death was registered in Birmingham – perhaps she was visiting family or friends – noted in the Suffolk paper The Bury Free Press,
ROLFE.—On January Ist. 1945, CHARLOTTE ROLFE passed peacefully away, aged 89 years. Service at St. Marylebone Crematorium. North London, Jan. 22nd.
but she was cremated in London.
If you discover more about Charlotte, please do contribute in the comments field below.
* NOTE: Thanks as ever to Norma Mcgilp who found her in the 1939 Register, and when she died.
Also, apologies but I somehow lost the ends of two sentences in this version, now corrected.
1901 Census – Class: RG13; Piece: 204; Folio: 10; Page: 11
1911 Census – Class: RG14; Piece: 9881; Schedule Number: 76
BDM vol: 9, no. 107, September 1900 p.245
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 7 February 2020
For Tinnitus Awareness week, here is a selection of review articles published in the last year. a review article is an analysis of research articles, so can provide a useful overview. Follow the links for abstracts where available, and note that several articles are open access.
Fuller T, Cima R, Langguth B, Mazurek B, Vlaeyen JW, Hoare DJ.
Cognitive behavioural therapy for tinnitus.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Jan 8;1:CD012614. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD012614.pub2.
Azevedo AA, Figueiredo RR, Penido NO.
Tinnitus and event related potentials: a systematic review.
Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Jan – Feb;86(1):119-126. doi: 10.1016/j.bjorl.2019.09.005. Epub 2019 Nov 4. Free Article
Nagaraj MK, Prabhu P.
Internet/smartphone-based applications for the treatment of tinnitus: a systematic review.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Dec 5. doi: 10.1007/s00405-019-05743-8.
Jafari Z, Kolb BE, Mohajerani MH.
Age-related hearing loss and tinnitus, dementia risk, and auditory amplification outcomes.
Ageing Res Rev. 2019 Dec;56:100963. doi: 10.1016/j.arr.2019.100963. Epub 2019 Sep 23.
Shore SE, Wu C.
Mechanisms of Noise-Induced Tinnitus: Insights from Cellular Studies.
Neuron. 2019 Jul 3;103(1):8-20. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.05.008.
Smith H, Fackrell K, Kennedy V, Barry J, Partridge L, Hoare DJ.
A scoping review to catalogue tinnitus problems in children.
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2019 Jul;122:141-151. doi: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2019.04.006. Epub 2019 Apr 11. Free Article
Hullfish J, Sedley W, Vanneste S.
Prediction and perception: Insights for (and from) tinnitus.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2019 Jul;102:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.neubiorev.2019.04.008. Epub 2019 Apr 15.
Schwippel T, Schroeder PA, Fallgatter AJ, Plewnia C.
Clinical review: The therapeutic use of theta-burst stimulation in mental disorders and tinnitus.
Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2019 Jun 8;92:285-300. doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2019.01.014. Epub 2019 Jan 29.
Tinnitus: Does Gain Explain?
Neuroscience. 2019 May 21;407:213-228. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2019.01.027. Epub 2019 Jan 26. Free Article
Theodoroff SM, Saunders GH.
Key Findings From Tinnitus Research and Clinical Implications.
Am J Audiol. 2019 Apr 22;28(1S):239-240. doi: 10.1044/2019_AJA-TTR17-19-0016. Free Article
Tzounopoulos T, Balaban C, Zitelli L, Palmer C.
Towards a Mechanistic-Driven Precision Medicine Approach for Tinnitus.
J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2019 Apr;20(2):115-131. doi: 10.1007/s10162-018-00709-9.
Zheng Y, Smith PF.
Cannabinoid drugs: will they relieve or exacerbate tinnitus?
Curr Opin Neurol. 2019 Feb;32(1):131-136. doi: 10.1097/WCO.0000000000000631.
Tang D, Li H, Chen L.
Advances in Understanding, Diagnosis, and Treatment of Tinnitus.
Adv Exp Med Biol. 2019;1130:109-128. doi: 10.1007/978-981-13-6123-4_7.
Valentino WL, McKinnon BJ.
What is the evidence for cannabis use in otolaryngology?: A narrative review.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Sep – Oct;40(5):770-775. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.05.025.
Salehi PP, Kasle D, Torabi SJ, Michaelides E, Hildrew DM.
The etiology, pathogeneses, and treatment of objective tinnitus: Unique case series and literature review.
Am J Otolaryngol. 2019 Jul – Aug;40(4):594-597. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2019.03.017.
By H Dominic W Stiles, on 31 January 2020
Mobi Urbanova was born Emilie Urbanova, in Prague, on the 24th of July, 1914. It seems that she was Deaf from birth. As it was a period of prewar mobilisation, her family called her ‘Mobi’ and the name stuck.
Her family was middle class, and her mother was a good pianist, and Mobi first showed an interest in dancing when only three.
The picture, in our postcard collection (so undoubtedly used by Selwyn Oxley for a lantern slide show), is probably taken from The Silent Worker. I skipped through it quickly but could not spot the original. Under the heading, Deaf Dancing Star of Prague, it continues,
INTERESTING PHENOMENON—A DEAF DANCER
There are very few deaf dancers. Only three have acquired world fame: the American dancer, Miss Helen Heckman, the leading dancer at the Opera Vienna, Mlle. Adeline, and M. David Marvel of America. There now appears a fourth dancing star of the deaf world: a child dancer, NH. Mobi Urbana.
She is now eleven years old. She was born in Prague of a middle-class family, and, though deaf by birth, she showed from early childhood a remarkable talent for rythmics and dancing. She danced everywhere and at any time; she played by dancing and created her own dance evolutions. Later she took a course in rythm [sic] and learned to dance the gavotte, the butterfly dance, and the polka, in its elaborate form, etc. She first appeared on the stage at eleven years of age, and has since won many records for exhibition dancing in Prague, and other towns and resorts in Czech-Slovakia. Her parents give her every opportunity to study dancing and music. She receives instruction in playing the piano, and is now one of the pupils of Mlle. Stephanie Klimesova, ballet mistress of the National Theatre in Prague. Her dancing is natural and free from all affectation. V. B. H.
Remarkably, she was able to publish a memoir, Splněný sen/Erfüllter Traum in 1943, at a time when the Germans were brutalising Deaf people. Perhaps because she was reasonably well known, she had some propaganda value.
Mobi’s mother remarried, Jiří Bubla, who in 1947 became chairman of the Czechoslovak Central Association for the Deaf. She taught dance to Deaf children from around 1942, and after the war. She would also play the piano as a part of her performance.
She died in Prague on the 22nd of January, 1988.
Please Note: I have broadly followed the Czech Wikipedia page, as I have found very little in English.