Q: Can anyone really take part?

A: They can indeed. You do not need any specialist knowledge or training, technical expertise, nor do you need any historical or philosophical background. You do not need prior approval from us to get started.  All that is required is some enthusiasm (and, perhaps, a little patience!).

All you need to do to begin taking part is create a volunteer account in order to be granted editing privileges, a process which should take a few seconds. An automated email will be sent to you containing a link, which you need to click to validate.

You’re then ready to transcribe!

Q: I have registered, but can’t transcribe anything, or get a blank page when I click the ‘click here to edit’ button. What’s going on?

A: A number of volunteers have reported that they did not receive the validation email after registering. In most of these instances, the email is redirected to spam or junk mail folders.  Please check your spam folder for the validation email, and perhaps consider editing your spam filters to allow Transcribe Bentham emails to come through.

If your validation email has expired, simply log out of your account on the Transcription Desk, and return to the account creation page. Enter your username, and click ’email new password’ to receive a new one.

Q: How do I get started with transcription?

A:We recommend that you consult our ‘Getting Started’ guidelines,which provide a summary of how the project works, how to transcribe and encode your work, and includes two short step-by-step instructional videos on embarking on your first transcript. There are also more detailed transcription instructions, which cover everything you might wish to know about transcribing and encoding (and a bit more besides).

Q: This text-encoding stuff looks a bit fiddly. Why do you request that we do it?

We ask volunteers to encode their transcripts in Text Encoding Initiative (TEI)-compliant XML; TEI is a de-facto standard for encoding electronic texts.

This probably sounds more terrifying than it actually is! We are aware that the encoding can be off-putting for volunteers, and so have attempted to make the addition of mark-up as straightforward as possible by creating the ‘Transcription Toolbar’. Rather than having to learn how to deal with the tags yourself, simply clicking on a button will generate the required piece of mark-up. To see how the markup has been applied to your transcript, simply click the ‘Preview’ tab in the transcription interface, then the ‘Wikitext’ tab when you are ready to continue transcribing.

By encoding your transcripts, you are helping to create a richer resource: researchers and students interested in Bentham’s writing process, his deletions and revisions, will be afforded the opportunity to pursue this, owing to your work. Encoded transcripts also allow for more powerful and refined searching: rather than search for every occurrence of ‘panopticon’, it will be possible to see where ‘panopticon’ occurs only when deleted, for example.

If you are interested in learning more about TEI, we recommend visiting the excellent TEI by Example website, which contains a number of online tutorials and exercises.

Q: Why should I take part? How will my contributions make a difference?

A: In a number of quite exciting ways. First, your transcripts will act as a basis for future editions of The Collected Works of Jeremy Bentham, which is being published by UCL’s Bentham Project. As you will see, manuscripts are often non-sequential and often do not make a great deal of sense in their own right. Your diplomatic transcripts (i.e. transcripts with all the additions, deletions, marginal notes etc) will be collated by Bentham Project editors to produce an edited, annotated text for publication. Your collaboration will be of material assistance in this work, by providing Bentham Project editors a significant head-start when putting together a Collected Works volume. You will be fully acknowledged in volumes of the Collected Works to which you contribute.

Second, you are opening up a vast, enormously important historical and philosophical resource for others to access. The Bentham Papers collection is vast: UCL holds around 60,000 manuscript folios (c.30 million words) written and composed by Bentham, while the British Library has another 12,500 Bentham manuscripts (c.6 million words). The majority of collection is still untranscribed and their contents largely unknown, rendering our understanding of Bentham’s thought—and its significance—at best provisional, and at worst a caricature.

There is the potential for new and exciting discoveries to be made. Volunteers have already discovered manuscripts relating to Bentham’s views on the treatment of animals (including an episode from Bentham’s childhood, where he incinerated earwigs in a candle); have identified a significant, unpublished portion of Bentham’s 1802 attack on the practice of transporting convicts to Australia, Panopticon versus New South Wales; and have transcribed a series of recipes compiled by Bentham for the panopticon prison’s kitchen. These latter manuscripts have recently been turned into a Benthamic cookbook.

Third, your transcripts will be uploaded to UCL Library Service’s digital repository (click ‘browse collections’), opening up the Bentham collection for everyone. Your efforts will make the Bentham Papers searchable, accessible to anyone, anywhere in the world with an internet connection, and will contribute to the long-term preservation of this priceless manuscript collection.

Finally, you are proof that a partnership between academia and the public works.

For all of this, we are greatly appreciative.

Q: The manuscript window is a bit fiddly, and I’m having trouble seeing as much of it as I would like. Can anything be done?

A: If you click the ‘maximise’ button, located above the image viewer, all other matter apart from the transcription interface will be removed and the image window enlargened. Clicking ‘minimise’ or saving your transcript will return the image viewer to its normal size.

If you would to see the image in full-screen, right-clicking on the white space below the Zoomify viewer (though still within the frame) will present a small menu. Highlight ‘This Frame’, then click either ‘Open frame in new window’ or ‘Open frame in new tab’, depending on your preference.

Q: Where can I read more about the project?

A: The Transcribe Bentham blog carries plenty of news and information about the project, as well as a weekly progress update. You can watch and listen to a number of broadcasts about the project, read numerous blogs and articles discussing Transcribe Bentham, and see a list of talks (some with video and audio) and published articles and blog posts by the team .

If you find yourself inspired to find out more about Bentham, you might wish to explore the Bentham Project’s freely-accessible Journal of Bentham Studies, which contains numerous articles about his life and thought. The Bentham Project website is a very useful source for all things Bentham!

Q: Is there any other way I can help the project team out?

A: There are plenty! You can like us on Facebook, follow our Twitter feed, and generally spread the word about the project.

Q: How do I contact the project team?

A: The project email address is transcribe.bentham@ucl.ac.uk and we welcome all enquiries.  Please note that it may take a little longer than usual to respond to your messages out of office hours or when UCL is closed for holidays.

Q: What’s the future got in store for Transcribe Bentham?

A: Transcribe Bentham is now part of the Recognition and Enrichment of Archival Documents (READ) project.  This is an exciting international collaboration funded by the European Commission’s Horizon 2020 programme, where we are working with computer scientists to train a model to recognise Bentham’s notoriously difficult handwriting.  This Handwritten Text Recognition technology promises to revolutionise access to historical papers and is freely available via the Transkribus tool.

Q: Blimey, Bentham’s handwriting is terrible, isn’t it?

A: Tell us about it.

However, help is at hand! We have collated a number of resources which might help in reading historical handwriting, as well as examples of Bentham’s handwriting to guide you along, which we periodically add to. As with most things, an eye for Bentham’s hand comes with time and practice!

Q: Did a Michelin-starred restaurant really make one of Bentham’s panopticon prison recipes?

A: They did indeed, tripe, spleen, lungs and all.

Last updated June 2017.