Archive for the 'Events' Category

New material – Panopticon versus New South Wales

By Tim Causer, on 20 April 2012

As mentioned in today’s progress update, 864 images-worth of material from Box 116 has been uploaded to the website for transcribing. This contains some very important material, mainly written around 1802, which relates to his views on the then recently-founded convict colony of New South Wales. Essentially, Bentham’s purpose was to condemn the colony, as transportation had emerged as the main alternative to the construction of penitentiaries, and specifically the Panopticon.

One of the works on which these manuscripts are based, Panopticon versus New South Wales, is a passionate assault on the supposed ‘failures’ of colony: that the society was immoral; that transported convicts were not reformed; that transportation was unjust and borderline illegal; and that the convict system was inefficient and hugely expensive. Set against this was a picture of Bentham’s efficient, cheap, and reformatory Panopticon. However, Bentham made a rather tendentious use of evidence in making his case, exaggerating matters and ignoring facts which did not fit his theory.

View of the Settlement on Sydney Cove, Port Jackson 20th August, 1788, held by the State Library of Victoria (

A second work arising from the material was A Plea for the Constitution, also known as The True Bastile, which was written circa 1803 but not published until 1812. Bentham now argued that since the Governors of New South Wales had not been given powers to make binding local regulations by Parliament, then they had not legal power to enforce such rules, or punish people for transgressing. Bentham recognised the incendiary nature of this argument, noting in August 1802 that were ‘I to publish [it] now, before Parliament is in readiness to do any thing, the great probability is that the Colony would be in a flame’. However, there is evidence that Bentham supplied a copy to David Collins, then in England but who was soon to depart again for the Antipodes, and that the arguments in A Plea for the Constitution played their part in the rationale for the bloodless overthrow of Governor William Bligh of New South Wales.

As a historian of colonial Australia, this material is very exciting – once transcribed, it will be possible to discern how Bentham developed his case against New South Wales, and formulated and corralled his evidence. It will also contribute to one of the more fertile historiographical trends in the history of convict transportation, namely the anti-transportation campaigns of the 1840s and 1850s; recent work in this area includes Babette Smith’s important Australia’s Birthstain, and a forthcoming discussion forum in the Journal of Australian Colonial History.

Panopticon versus New South Wales had no impact on the policy of transportation at the time of its publication—more and more convicts were transported to New South Wales and Van Diemen’s Land, especially from 1816. But the ideas it contained were discussed at length during the following decades, and they were at the centre of the great show-trial of the convict system, the 1837-1838 Select Committee on Transportation, chaired by the then 27 year-old Radical MP, Sir William Molesworth. He described Bentham as one of England’s ‘greatest and most original thinkers’, used Bentham’s arguments in his speeches, and followed Bentham’s tendentious methods when making his own investigation into transportation. Incidentally, according to the historian John Ritchie, it was ‘a jibe while [Molesworth] was at University that he not only admired Bentham but also understood him’.

We hope you enjoy consulting and transcribing this material! Do let us know if you have any questions.

Transcribe Bentham needs your vote!

By Tim Causer, on 4 April 2012

Transcribe Bentham has been entered into the EngageU public engagement awards, which is run by the Oxford Internet Institute as part of the European Commission-funded ULab project. The competition seeks to identify some of the most innovative outreach and public engagement programmes being carried out by European universities.

There have been over one hundred extremely interesting entries, including Transcribe Bentham. The results depend partly on the decision of a jury, and partly on a public vote. We at TB would be very grateful if you could find the time to vote for the project (no need to sign up for any account, just click the red ‘like this entry’ button).

Thank you!

UCL closure, 5 to 11 April 2012

By Tim Causer, on 27 March 2012

UCL will be close for the Easter break on 5 April and reopen on 12 April, during which time the Transcription Desk will remain fully available, though it will be largely unstaffed during this period.

The last full and normal checking of submissions before the break will take place on Friday 30 April. We intend to issue a basic progress update—as we did during the December break—on Friday 6 April. Any submissions received after this date may not be checked until UCL reopens when normal service will be resumed, and we apologise in advance for any inconvenience caused.

If volunteers have any queries about these arrangements, please do contact us before 5 April.

In the meantime, we would like to thank all our volunteers, Facebook and Twitter followers, and readers of the blog for all their support, efforts and interest and hope you all have a good break.

Christmas arrangements 2011

By Tim Causer, on 9 December 2011

As everyone is more than aware, Christmas and new year are fast approaching, and with them comes UCL’s Christmas break. Bentham, as regular readers will be aware, would have disapproved of wasting potential working time on frivolities and holidays, but we at the Bentham Project take a softer line on these matters.

Volunteers should be aware that while the Transcription Desk will remain available over the holiday, it will be largely unstaffed between Thursday 21 December and Monday 9 January. We intend to release the regular Friday progress updates while UCL is closed and will endeavour to answer email queries, but please note that there may be some delay in receiving a response to messages. Transcripts submitted after 20 December will not be checked until our return, and we apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause.

If volunteers have any queries about these arrangements, please do contact us before the 21st.

All here at Transcribe Bentham would like to thank our transcribers and Facebook and Twitter followers for their highly valued efforts and support during the last twelve months. We couldn’t have done any of this – quite literally – without all of you. We wish everyone a very happy festive period and all the best for 2012!

Transcribe Bentham @Ars Electronica 2011: Day 4

By Tim Causer, on 5 September 2011

Today was all about the Public Space Squared symposium at the Brucknerhaus, where a host of hugely interesting people spoke. Photographs of the day are available at the Ars Electronica Flickr stream, and recordings of all of the talks are being progressively added to their YouTube channel. The Digital Communities section of the session is available to watch here.

After an introduction from David Sasaki, one of the symposium’s conveners, we were given three superb presentations: Tunisian activist Lina Ben Mhenni described how the overthrow of Ben Ali was not a ‘Facebook Revolution’ or ‘Twitter Revolution’, as well as how the authorities used social media for their own purposes; Zeynep Tufekci discussed technology and collective action, and gave some findings from a survey taken on the ground in Tahrir Square; and Leila Nachawati spoke on citizen journalism and the vicious repression of their own people by the Syrian government.

After lunch came talks from the Digital Communities prize-winning projects, moderated by Beatrice Achelake, one of the jury members. The Golden Nica winner was the Fundación Ciudadano Inteligente, represented by its president, Felipe Heusser; Alexandra Jönsson and Cliff Hammett discussed their Award of Distinction-winning x_msg; and then finally I spoke about Transcribe Bentham. It was a great privilege to be able to talk about TB before the audience.

The final session featured Hu Yong of Beijing University discussing use of the internet in China; Tan Siok Siok spoke about her forthcoming crowdsourced Twitter documentary; and Markus Beckedahl of Netzpolitik discussed digital resources and politics.  This was followed by an enlightening panel discussion, and a summary from Isaac Mao, the symposium’s other convener.

Rounding off the day was – at last! – a chance to see the Tesla Orchestra at the Ars Electronica Centre. In case you were wondering, yes, that is a man in a metal costume playing music with tens of thousands of volts of electricity, generated by the world’s largest Tesla coils.

On behalf of all at Transcribe Bentham, I would like to express gratitude to all at Ars Electronica for their welcome, travel and accommodation arrangements, and letting us attend and present our work. Thanks too to the Digital Communities jury for selecting Transcribe Bentham to receive an award in the Prix, particularly as it was such a hard decision to whittle a very competitive field down to three.

All that remains to say is Auf Wiedersein, Linz! It’s been an honour and pleasure.