Jonathan Scarth the Younger (1704-1745)
Jonathan Scarth the younger was born at his parents’ house in George Yard on Tower Hill on 31 May 1704. There is no record of young Scarth until his marriage in 1729, but surely he was learning the merchant trade under his father’s tutelage. In his late teens, Jonathan entered the service of the East India Company having been nominated by a company director, likely Samuel Hyde or Quaker Henry Lascelles, both neighbors and associates of his father. He would have been sent to the East Indies to train under a Company merchant for a period of five or more years, before becoming an apprentice merchant. After about three of those years, and having satisfactorily completed his training so far, Jonathan would have graduated to junior merchant, and then lesser supercargo, for which he would have received a small wage and been given limited private trading permission. Before more modern forms of international trade with a common currency, supercargoes performed the purchasing, selling, and shipping functions for their respective companies. A supercargo was a temporary travelling merchant, restricted to a particular cargo on a particular ship in the employ of a particular company. A supercargo accompanied his employer’s cargo to a foreign land where he was expected to sell the product for the highest price available, and then to purchase goods that would produce high profits for the company when sold back home. A supercargo was usually paid by commission, providing incentive for profitable sales and purchases and safe and secure shipping. Scarth, as an East India Company supercargo, travelled back and forth to Canton, managing financial transactions for his assigned ship’s cargo.
Jonathan Scarth married Ruth Grove (1713–1735), the daughter of eminent Quaker merchant Silvanus Grove, in November 1729 in St Katherine by the Tower Parish, London. Before entering into the marriage, Scarth had made a marriage agreement with Grove. After Grove and his wife Elizabeth died intestate, Scarth and Ruth brought a suit in 1730 for their share of the Grove estate based on the marriage settlement. It appears that Joseph Adams and Edward Walburge were called as defendants and testified to the facts that Ruth and Scarth were married, that the parents had died intestate with a considerable personal estate, and that Jonathan had entered into the marriage agreement for which an indenture was executed. About a year later, Scarth and Ruth welcomed a daughter, Elizabeth. Just a few years later, in April 1735, Ruth Scarth died at the age of 22 of consumption.
In 1739, Scarth was named as a supercargo for the East India Company’s 1739–40 season and again for the 1741–2 season. Scarth was on the petition to be a supercargo for the 1743–4 season, but he was not selected. Having been away for almost four years, Scarth spent 1743 with his family and friends. It is likely that Jonathan used his time off to be with his daughter and his father who at the age of 76 was in failing health. In October 1743, Jonathan Scarth the elder died, leaving Jonathan in charge of the family. There would have been much to do to get his father’s affairs settled, but Jonathan did take time for relaxation. He joined his brother-in-law, the junior Silvanus Grove, and the American colonial Benjamin Chew at his family’s Ilford house for a couple of days of fox hunting in mid-December 1743.
Even after inheriting his father’s mercantile business, Jonathan chose to continue his employment with the East India Company as supercargo. On 3 January 1744, Jonathan Scarth wrote his will, just weeks before he set sail on his final journey to the East Indies, listing himself as late of Ilford, Essex, and as a merchant in Lothbury. The family mercantile business was likely administered by Jonathan’s brothers-in-law, Joseph Adams and Silvanus Grove, both successful London merchants in their own right; Adams had a country house in Silver Street, Edmonton, and Grove’s country house still stands in Woodford on the A1199. Jonathan Scarth never returned to England.
Journeys as Supercargo
According to the London Daily Post, Scarth was a ‘supra cargo’ on the Augusta bound for Whampoa (Canton or Guangzhou), under Captain Augustus Townsend. However, the Evening Post and East India Company records show that Scarth was actually the fifth supercargo on the Houghton captained by Philip Worth. The Houghton, which first began service for the East India Company in 1738, was a 460-ton ship, with 30 guns and a crew of 92. The Houghton, carrying 1,339 piculs of lead and 1,000 pieces of perpetuano (coarse, durable woolen fabric, sometimes used for coat linings), departed London on 16 January 1739, and the Downs on 7 February 1739, but was still near Deal on 22 February. The Houghton left Spithead on 11 March (left English shores 30 March) and arrived at Whampoa on 20 July, having made the outbound journey in a record time. The 15,689-mile trip from Portsmouth to Whampao, travelling through the straits of Sunda and Banca, took 138 days. In China, the Houghton’s supercargoes relied on the services of Teinqua, a Hong merchant, and sold their cargo quickly, using their funds to purchase as much of the preferred Hyson green tea as they could. During the course of the trading season, the supercargoes of the Houghton and Walpole purchased more goods than they were able to transport back to England and had to put some of their tea on the Augusta. Near the end of the trading season, on 7 December 1739, a mob assembled outside the East India Company factory at Whampoa. One man tried to force himself into the factory, and when the guard prevented him, the man began throwing bricks. The guard, fearing for his safety, drew his cutlass and brought it down upon the man’s head, the cutlass cutting through the bone. For the next two weeks tensions ran high. This incident reminds us that Company trade in China was highly fraught in the years before Commodore Anson’s celebrated exploits in Canton, discussed in Stephen McDowall’s case study. The supercargoes gratefully left Whampoa on 26 December. The Houghton and the Walpole, carrying 6,307 piculs of tea, 7,295 pieces of woven silk, 20 piculs of raw silk, 513 piculs of cotton cloth, 425 chests of chinaware, and 595 piculs of tutenague (crude zinc), departed Whampoa in the company of the Duke of Lorrain and the Augusta, East-Indiamen all, for the return voyage to London on 26 December 1739. The Houghton was reported to be at St Helena from April until its homebound departure on 13 July 1740.
In December 1740, Jonathan Scarth was appointed as a supercargo for the 1741 season by the Court of Directors of the East India Company. Abuses of trading privileges by Company employees were frequent, but Scarth did request in early February 1740 ‘permission to carry out £60 worth of gold stone and £15 worth of plate glass’ for his own private trade while in the East. The York, under captain Henry Lascelles with Jonathan Scarth as supercargo and with a cargo of 1,348 piculs of lead and 997 pieces of perpetuano, departed Spithead on 14 March 1741, in the company of the Northhampton for China. The Princess Mary, carrying Scarth’s chief council, Richard Oliver, had been sent to Whampoa ahead of the York to begin advance stockpiling of Hyson tea, but near latitude 15 the Princess Mary ran into a typhoon and lost its masts, not reaching Macao until July 1742. Meanwhile, the York had sailed to Batavia and in July 1741 was there awaiting the Princess Mary and Oliver. The York arrived in Whampoa in mid-August, and by November 1741, the York was making its final sales and purchases for its homebound departure. The York sailed in company with the Godolphin from China, reaching the Cape in April, St Helena in May, and the Downs in September 1742.
In early January 1744, Jonathan Scarth and Richard Oliver were named as supercargoes of the York for the 1744–5 season. According to a letter written by Captain Lascelles on 24 January 1744, Jonathan Scarth was aboard the York when it departed England for Whampoa in the company of the Stafford. Scarth brought the following items for his personal use: twelve half chests of wine; three chests and a bureau of apparel, ‘necessarys’, and books; two half chests and nineteen hampers of water; two boxes of lemons; one box of medicine; one chair; and a bundle of bedding. He also brought a box of pictures and three cases of glassware ‘for his indulgence’. The York safely departed Madeira in February and arrived at Fort St George in Madras on 4 June 1744. A letter dated 6 June 1744 written to the East India Company Directors informed them that the York was being loaded with lead, tin, redwood (probably Indian sappanwood) and silver for China. The letter also stated that supercargoes Jonathan Scarth and Richard Oliver had been given orders for Whampoa to purchase tea, silks, chinaware and saltpetre. Scarth’s pay was to be three-quarters of a percent of the cargo’s sale. On 17 June 1744, the York sailed for Whampoa with Scarth and Oliver aboard. Twenty months later, in early August 1745, Richard Oliver returned to England, arriving in Plymouth, having found passage on a Swedish ship from India. He reported to East India House that the York, among other ships, had been at St Helena in May 1745 preparing for her homeward-bound journey along with 11 other ‘Coast and Bay’ (Coromandel Coast and Bengal Bay) ships. He also reported that York supercargo Jonathan Scarth was dead.
The York’s story continues. In August 1745, newspapers reported that the York was in a convoy in the Straits of Banka and that she carried several French prisoners of war seized in the Straits of Malacca. In mid-September, newspaper reports claimed that the York was among thirteen other ships that had arrived safely in Galway. They had departed St Helena without convoy on 6 July. Ships generally travelled in convoy for safety, especially during wartime, and war with France had been declared the previous March, but the port’s supplies had begun to grow sparse, and the ships’ captains feared they would be unable to find adequate provisions for the return home if they stayed any longer in St Helena, and so departed without convoy. On 16 December 1745, the York, captained by Lascelles, passed the Downs on its return from India.
Jonathan Scarth died in Canton in October 1744. He was declared deceased in England in December 1745. This suggests that Jonathan could not be officially declared dead before the return of the York to London. There is no record of Jonathan Scarth’s body’s being returned to or buried in England. As was the customary practice at the time of his death, Jonathan was likely buried on a hillside on one of the many islands surrounding Whampoa, and there are no extant records of the graves of the countless foreigners in those hills in the early–to–mid 1700s. There is also no indication of how Jonathan died. Mortality rates in China were especially high for Europeans during this period due to climate and disease.
Jonathan Scarth’s only child, Elizabeth, had lost both her parents by her sixteenth birthday. At the time of Scarth’s death, a search was made for his will by Henry Hayter and Silvanus Grove, but they not having found one, Scarth was declared to have died intestate. Joseph Adams and Silvanus Grove were appointed administrators of Scarth’s personal estate, and Adams was appointed guardian of the minor child Elizabeth by the court. As her father had been traveling overseas for years prior to his demise with only short respites in England, it is likely that Elizabeth was raised by her grandmother Ann Scarth and her aunt Miriam Hayter. Joseph Adams died in 1748, and Silvanus Grove, Andrew Grote, and Samuel Reeve were named as Adams’s executors, and Grove became Elizabeth’s legal guardian, though it remains likely that she continued to live with the Hayters. In 1749, in advance of Elizabeth’s upcoming nuptials, Scarth’s estate was evaluated and estimated by Grove, Hayter, Grote, and Reeve to be somewhat more than £7,000, which was based on the 1729 Scarth-Grove marriage agreement and known stock holdings. The fortune consisted of £1,600 bank stock, £1,500 South Sea annuities, £3,100 bank annuities, and a portion of her paternal grandfather’s Barbados planation. It was agreed by all parties—Grove, Elizabeth, and her fiancée, Francis Moore the younger—to the marriage agreement that one third of Elizabeth’s fortune would be given to Francis Moore with the intention that he would use the funds to further his trade. The other two thirds would be held in trust and invested in public stocks by the administrators, with annual dividends paid to Elizabeth.
On 29 September 1749, Elizabeth was married to Francis Moore at St Gregory by St Paul. Both listed their age as 21. Moore was a haberdasher in King Street as was Elizabeth’s uncle Henry Hayter (1713–1766).It is possible the Hayters and Moores were business partners in addition to neighbors. It was a common practice for a daughter, or in this case niece, to be married to the son of one’s business partner. Jonathan Scarth’s will was eventually found by Silvanus Grove in Joseph Adams’s papers, and after his funeral expenses, debts, and bequests had been satisfied, Scarth’s estate was actually worth about one half of what was originally estimated. Jonathan Scarth provided legacies of varying amounts to his mother, sisters, nieces, and nephews, and to his friend the widow Jane Hill. Scarth’s will specified that a trust was to be established for any children of Elizabeth. Elizabeth and Francis Moore had one child, Frank Moore (1751–1828). The will also stipulated that if the balance of his estate was not enough to pay the legacies in full, all the legacies, including Elizabeth’s, were to be reduced proportionally. Grove and Hayter, administrators of the Joseph Adams, Jonathan Scarth, and Ann Scarth estates, and Hayter as guardian of Elizabeth’s son, were requesting that the monies paid to Elizabeth and her husband be partially returned to the estate so the legacies could be paid. This created a hardship for Elizabeth and her husband. They had been paid one-third of the total estate at the time of their marriage in 1749 when her father was thought to have died intestate. They filed complaints with the courts in 1752 arguing that they would have to take funds from the business in order to reimburse the estate for the overpayment. They claimed that this would be a hardship now and would limit future profits from the business. A new agreement was created and presented to the court in 1752 for approval.
Francis Moore the younger was declared bankrupt in May 1756. There is no way to know if the reduction of the marriage settlement and the subsequent payment was the cause of the bankruptcy, though it seems likely that it contributed. Soper Hayter, one of the King Street haberdasher Hayters (Soper, Henry, and Walter) and Henry Hayter’s brother, was also declared bankrupt. Records indicate there were a number of haberdashers on King Street in Cheapside in the 1750s, but there is no indication why the Hayter-Moore business foundered, though the tax records show the Hayter’s personal estate value declined by half between 1745 and 1754. Just a few years later, at the age of 31, Francis Moore died in May 1759, presumably intestate.
Elizabeth Moore died three years after her husband, in June 1762. In her will, she named Edmund Pepys of Gerard Street, Westminster, as executor of her real estate and Isaac Mendes Furtado of Cornhill, London, as executor of her personal estate. She bequeathed to her son three pounds and any monies that were left after the sale of her real estate and the bequests to her executors. This suggests that Elizabeth had become somehow estranged from her son, who would have been ten or eleven years old at the time of her death. The 1752 lawsuit and Elizabeth’s will suggest that Elizabeth Moore did not have custody of her child. It seems likely that Miriam Hayter, Elizabeth’s aunt, had him. Miriam Hayter died in May 1774 and left young Moore all her ‘Plate and China,’ and she made no other bequests to nieces or nephews.
Frank Moore joined the military as a young adult. He rose through the ranks from cornet to major through purchased commissions in the 11th Regiment of Light Dragoons.He retired to his house in Northchurch, just outside Berkhampstead in north-west Hertfordshire, where he died in 1828. In his will, he bequeathed £4,500 East India stock to his wife Hannah and son Frank John Moore (1806–).
 Philip Lawson, The East India Company: A History (London: Longman, 1987), 71–72.
 Ray Bert Westerfield, ‘Middlemen in English Business Particularly between 1660 and 1760,’ Transactions of the Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 19 (May 1915): 111–445.
 Register of Marriages 1686–1701, 1713–1735, 1686–1735, Guildhall, St Katherine by the Tower, SKT/C/01/Ms9665, Church of England Parish Registers, 1538–1812, London, England, Baptisms, Marriages and Burials, 1538–1812, p. 94, London Metropolitan Archives, digital image, Ancestry.com (accessed 29 October 2013).
 According to the OED, a marriage settlement is a ‘legal arrangement which secures certain property for an intended wife and sometimes also for any children of an intended marriage; a deed by which such an arrangement is effected,’ ‘marriage, n.’ OED Online, September 2013, Oxford University Press http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/114320?redirectedFrom=marriage+settlement (accessed 19 November 2013).
 Scarth v. Adams, C 11/1482/35, Zincke Division; Records of Equity Side: the Six Clerks; CoC, TNA; Scarth v. Grove, C 11/1480/24, Zincke Division; Records of Equity Side: the Six Clerks; CoC, TNA.
 London Daily Gazetteer, December 23, 1739, issue 1094; London Daily Post, 25 January 1739, issue 6046.
 Scarth applied for the post of EIC supercargo for 1742–1743, but was not selected. East India Company, Court Minutes 7 Apr 1742–4 Apr 1744, IOR/B/67, Court Minutes of the Old, New and United Companies 1599–1858, Minutes of the East India Company’s Directors and Proprietors 1599–1858, Minutes of the East India Company’s Directors and Proprietors, India Office Records and Private Papers, British Library.
 Benjamin Chew, London Journals, 1743–1744, Chew Family Papers Collection 2050, Series II, Box 18, folder 7, HSP.
 Jonathan Scarth, will dated 31 October 1751, PROB 11/790, Public Record Office, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, TNA.
Public Advertiser (London), 11 June 1753, issue 5809. Doreen Skala, ‘Silvanus Grove and the Origins of Elmhurst’, (Woodford Historical Society, 2012), http://woodfordhistoricalsociety.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Elmhurst-Grove-bio-pdf.pdf.
 London Daily Post, 25 January 1739, issue 6046.
 H. B. Morse, Britain and the China Trade, 1635–1834, volume 1: The Chronicles of the East India Company Trading to China (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1926) (London: Routledge, 2000, reprint); London Evening Post (London, England), 21 December 1738 – 23 December 1738, issue 1733; London Daily Journal (London, England), Monday, 20 March 1732, issue 3497.
 London Daily Gazette, 22 February 1739, issue 1146; A picul was 133.5 pounds or 60.5 kg on average; The Downs were an area of sea eight miles north-east of Dover and where ships waited for an easterly wind to carry them through the English Channel.
 Records of Fort St George, Letters from Fort St George, 1739, vol. 23 (Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1931), 35.
 Morse, Britain and the China Trade, 266.
 Hong merchants were a group of Chinese merchants authorized by the Chinese government to act as liaison to British traders in Canton; Morse, Britain and the China Trade, 266.
 In 1743, Scarth requested an advance on his commission for the 1743–1744 season in order to settle his accounts against the loan he had received against the cargo of tea shipped on the Augusta. Morse, Britain and the China Trade, 276.
Stephen McDowall, ‘Shugborough: Seat of the Earl Lichfield’: http://blogs.ucl.ac.uk/eicah/shugborough-hall-staffordshire/ .
 Ibid., 270.
 Records of Fort St George, Letters from Fort St George, 1740, vol. 24 (Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1932), 52; London General Evening Post, 5 July 1740 – 8 July 1740, issue 1059; London Common Sense, or the Englishman’s Journal, 13 July 1740, issue 179.
 London Evening Post, 4 December 1740 – 6 December 1740, issue 2039.
 Lawson, History, 81; J. G. L. Burnby and T. D. Whittet, ‘Plague, Pills, and Surgery: The Story of Bromfields,’ Occasional Paper, New Series 31 (Edmonton Hundred Historical Society, 1975); ‘Letter 39 Jonathan Scarth to the Court requesting permission to carry out £60 worth of gold stone and £15 worth of plate glass as part of his private trade allowance,’ letter, February 3, 1741, IOR/E/1/30 ff. 79-80v, Miscellaneous letters Received, Home Correspondence 1699–1859, East India Company General Correspondence. 1602–1859, India Office Records and Private Papers, British Library; Scarth probably brought Cornish yellow topaz, which was sold in large quantities in India by the East India Company during the 1700s. Samuel Parkes, The Chemical Catechism: With Notes, Illustrations, and Experiments (New York: Collins and Co., 1818), 305.
 London Daily Gazetteer, Tuesday, 17 March 1741, issue 1793.
 Morse, Britain and the China Trade, 276.
 London Daily Post, Tuesday, 7 September 1742, issue 7178.
 Records of Fort St George: Despatches from England, 1743–1744 (Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1932), 7; ‘Richard Oliver and Jonathan Scarth, Supercargoes of the York and Stafford,’ [no title] E/3/109 ff 49v-50 11 Jan 1744, Letter Book 26 E/3/109 1743–1747, East India Company Letter Books IOR/E/3/84-111 1626–1753, Correspondence with the East IOR/E/3 1602-1753, East India Company General Correspondence IOR/E, India Office Records, East India Company General Correspondence [E/3/99 – E/3/111], Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections, British Library.
 Records of Fort St George, Letters from Fort St George, 1744, vol. 26 (Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1932), 41.
 Scurvy killed. The preventive effect of citrus fruits was known in the 1740s but not universally believed. The British Navy did not institute the lime juice ration until later, in the 1790s. M. Bartholomew, James Lind’s Treatise of the Scurvy (1753), Postgraduate Medical Journal 78, no. 925 (November 2002): 695–698.
 Despatches, 60.
 Ibid, 16; Fort St George, Letters, vol. 26, 42.
 Records of Fort St George: Diary and Consultation Book of 1744, Madras (Madras: Printed by the Superintendent, Government Press, 1931), 128.
 Fort St George, Letters, vol. 26, 43; Despatches, 10.
 Fort St George, Letters, vol. 26, 48.
 London Evening Post, 6 August 1745 – 8 August 1745, issue 2772; London General Evening, 3 August 1745 – 6 August 1745, issue 1854; London Universal Spectator and Weekly Journal, Saturday, 10 August 1745, issue 879.
 London General Advertiser, Wednesday, 7 August 1745, issue 3347.
 London Evening Post, 21 September 1745 – 24 September 1745, issue 2790.
 Penny London Post or the Morning Advertiser, 20 December 1745 – 23 December 1745, issue 414.
Moore v. Grove, C11/1661/2, 1752, Pleadings C11/1661; Zincke Division, Pleadings 1714 to 1758; Six Clerks Office, CoC, TNA.
 Jonathon Scarth, will 1751.
Lindsay and May Ride, An East India Company Cemetery: Protestant Burials in Macao, ed. Bernard Mellor (Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 1996), 59; J. G. L. Burnby and T. D. Whittet, ‘Plague, Pills, and Surgery: The Story of Bromfields,’ Occasional Paper, N.S. 31, Edmonton Hundred Historical Society, 1975; Jonathon Scarth, will 1751.
 Moore v. Grove, C11/1661/2, 1752, TNA.
 Ann Scarth died at the Hayter house on King Street in September 1746 and was buried at the Friends burying ground in Whitechapel. Devonshire House Burial Record, p. 552, RG6/330, Society of Friends’ (Quakers) Registers, Notes and Certificates of Births, Marriages and Burials ranging from 1578–1841, BMD register.
 Silvanus Grove and Andrew Grote were Joseph Adams’s sons-in-law and Samuel Reeve was his bookkeeper. Joseph Adams, will dated 16 December 1748, National Archives of the UK: Public Record Office, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PROB 11/766.
 Moore v. Grove, C11/1661/2, 1752, TNA.
 Francis Moore of St Martin, Ironmonger Lane, married Elizabeth Scarth of the same street on 9 September 1749. ‘Register Book for the Parish of St Gregory in London,’ Church of England Parish Registers, 1538–1812, p. 2, St Gregory by St Paul, Composite Register: Baptisms 1755 –1799, Marriages 1749 –1754, Burials 1757 –1800, P69/GRE/A/007/MS18935, London Metropolitan Archives, digital image, Ancestry.com (accessed 3 November 2013).
 The OED defines a haberdasher as ‘a dealer in small articles appertaining to dress, as thread, tape, ribbons, etc.’ ‘haberdasher, n.’, OED Online, September 2013, Oxford University Press, http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/82962?redirectedFrom=haberdasher (accessed 3 November 2013).
 Moore v. Grove, C11/1661/2, 1752, TNA.
 London British Chronicle, 7 May 1759 – 9 May 1759, issue 282; London Gazette, 31 July 1756, issue 9605, p. 2.
 London Evening Post, 15 June – 18 June, 1754, issue 4150.
 Soper Hayter was valued on his property in St Martins, Ironmonger Lane, Cheap Ward. ‘London Land Tax Records 1692–1932,’ London Metropolitan Archives, MS11316/139 1745, p. 10, MS11316/154 1750 p. 10, MS 11319/166 1754, p. 10, digital image, Ancestry.com (accessed 3 November 2013).
 Elizabeth Moore, will dated 30 June 1762, PROB 11/877/436, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PRO; Miriam Hayter, will dated 2 May 1774, PROB 11/998/2, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PRO.
 Frank Moore the younger purchased a commission as cornet in the Queen’s Regiment of Dragoons. London Gazette, 22 June 1773, issue 11364, p. 1; Frank Moore was promoted from cornet to lieutenant by purchase in the Eleventh Regiment of Dragoons. London Gazette, February 10, 1776, issue 11639, p. 1; Frank Moore was promoted from lieutenant to captain in the Eleventh Regiment of Dragoons. London Gazette, 24 June 1780, issue 12095, p. 2; Major Frank Moore retired from the Eleventh Regiment of Dragoons. London Gazette, 8 May 1792, issue 13413, p. 1; Frank Moore, will dated 24 March 1828, PROB 11/1738/237, Records of the Prerogative Court of Canterbury, PRO.